Bibliografia scientifica sulla pericolosità delle sostanze chimiche

LanguageTitleReferenceThemeSourcePublishing YearAbstractLinkGroup of substances (custom)CAS
EnglishThe hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of textile preparation auxiliaries on the photochemical treatment of nonylphenol ethoxylate.Arslan-Alaton, I., Shayin, S., & Olmez-Hanci, T. (2012). The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of textile preparation auxiliaries on the photochemical treatment of nonylphenol ethoxylate. Environmental Technology, 33 (4), 419-427. doi:10.1080/09593330.2011.578152 Analytical methodsEnvironmental Technology2012The present paper deals with the effects of frequently used textile preparation chemicals and common ions on the H 2O 2/UV-C treatment of a commercially important and slowly biodegradable nonionic surfactant, namely a nonylphenol bearing 10 ethoxylated chains. For this purpose, the effect of soda ash carbonate (0-5.0gL -1), two phosphonic acid-based organic sequestering agents (0-2.5gL -1) and chloride (0-3.0gL -1) at two different pH values (3.5 and 10.5) as hydroxyl radical scavengers was experimentally investigated. Among the studied textile preparation chemicals and hydroxyl radical scavengers, the decreasing order of hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity was established as diethylene triamine penta-methylene phosphonic acid>1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid>soda ash carbonate at pH 10.5>chloride at pH 3.5>chloride at pH 10.5. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09593330.2011.578152APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
English Biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol in seawater and sediment.Ekelund, R., Granmo, Å., Magnusson, K., Berggren, M., & Bergman, Å. (1993). Biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol in seawater and sediment. Environmental Pollution, 79(1), 59-61. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(93)90178-Q Analytical methodsEnvironmental Pollution1993INTRODUCTION:
This study relates to use of zerovalent iron to generate hydroxyl free radicals and undergo subsequent oxidation to destroy 4-nonylphenol (NP) by mild process in aqueous solution and activation of oxygen gas (O2) at room temperature. This technology is based on a novel oxidative mechanism mediated by zerovalent iron rather than commonly used reduction mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A laboratory scale device consisting of a 250 ml pyrex serum vials fixed to a Vortex agitator was used. Different amounts of zerovalent iron powder (ZVI; 1, 10, and 30 g/l) at pH 4 and room temperature with bubbling of oxygen gas were investigated.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
Experiments showed an observed degradation rate k (obs) directly proportional to the amount of iron. 4-Nonylphenol degradation reactions demonstrated first-order kinetics with a half-life of about 10.5  ±  0.5 and 3.5  ±  0.2 min when experiments were conducted at [ZVI] = 1 and 30 g/l respectively. Three analytical techniques were employed to monitor 4-nonylphenol degradation and mineralization: (1) spectrofluorimetry; (2) high-performance liquid chromatography; (3) total organic carbon meter (TOC meter). Results showed a complete disappearance of 4-nonylphenol after 20 min of contact with ZVI. The intermediate by-products of the reaction were not identified but the disappearance of NP was monitored by the three above-mentioned techniques
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/026974919390178QAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishDetermination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol in human blood samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection.Inoue, K., Yoshimura, Y., Makino, T., & Nakazawa, H. (2000). Determination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol in human blood samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection. Analyst, 125(11), 1959-1961. Analytical methodsAnalyst2000Alkylphenols can affect human health because they disrupt the endocrine system. In this study, an analytical method for determining trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-octylphenol (OP) in human blood samples was developed. Reversed-phase HPLC with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection was used for the determination of NP and OP in plasma and serum samples prepared with a solid-phase extraction method. The separation was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase of 0.7% phosphoric acid–acetonitrile with a C18 reversed phase column. The detection limits of NP and OP were 1.0 and 0.5 ng ml−1, respectively. The recoveries of NP and OP added to human plasma samples were above 70.0% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15.5%. The method was found to be applicable to the determination of NP and OP in various human blood samples such as serum and plasma.http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleHtml/2000/AN/b006597hAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; (OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishDetermination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol in human blood samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection.Inoue, K., Yoshimura, Y., Makino, T., & Nakazawa, H. (2000). Determination of 4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol in human blood samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection. Analyst, 125 (11), 1959-1961. Analytical methodsAnalyst2000Alkylphenols can affect human health because they disrupt the endocrine system. In this study, an analytical method for determining trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-octylphenol (OP) in human blood samples was developed. Reversed-phase HPLC with multi-electrode electrochemical coulometric-array detection was used for the determination of NP and OP in plasma and serum samples prepared with a solid-phase extraction method. The separation was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase of 0.7% phosphoric acid–acetonitrile with a C 18  reversed phase column. The detection limits of NP and OP were 1.0 and 0.5 ng ml −1 , respectively. The recoveries of NP and OP added to human plasma samples were above 70.0% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15.5%. The method was found to be applicable to the determination of NP and OP in various human blood samples such as serum and plasmahttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2000/an/b006597h#!divAbstractAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; (OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
English LC–MS–MS analysis and occurrence of octyl- and nonylphenol, their ethoxylates and their carboxylates in belgian and italian textile industry, waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters Loos, R., Hanke, G., Umlauf, G., & Eisenreich, S. J. (2007). LC–MS–MS analysis and occurrence of octyl- and nonylphenol, their ethoxylates and their carboxylates in belgian and italian textile industry, waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters. Chemosphere. 66 (4), 690-699. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.07.060 Analytical methodsChemosphere2007Alkylphenols (APs), alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), ethoxycarboxylate metabolites (APECs) and bisphenol A were determined in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by triple-quadrupole LC-MS-MS. APs were separated by LC from APECs using an acetonitrile-water-gradient without the addition of any buffer. Nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (NPECs) interfere in the detection of nonylphenols (NPs) when using an acidic mobile phase, because they produce the same MS-MS fragment ions (219>133 and 147). 4n-NP shows the characteristic transition 219>106; it is well suited as internal standard. Nonylphenol ethoxylates NPE(n)Os (n=1-17) were analysed separately in a second run by positive ionization using an ammonium acetate mobile phase. Textile industry discharges, the corresponding wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving rivers in Belgium and Italy were analysed. Among the substances investigated, NPE1C and NPE2O exhibited the highest concentrations in the water samples, up to 4.5 microg l(-1) NPE1C in a WWTP effluent and 3.6 microg l(-1) NPE2O in a river. The highest NP levels were found in the receiving rivers (max. 2.5 microg l(-1)). The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for NP of 0.33 microg l(-1) for water species was frequently exceeded in the surface waters investigated, suggesting potential adverse effects to the aquatic environment.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653506010137?via%3DihubAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishDevelopment of a novel solid-phase extraction element for the detection of nonylphenol in the surface water of hangzhou.Lou, L., Cheng, G., Yang, Q., Xu, X., Hu, B., & Chen, Y. (2012). Development of a novel solid-phase extraction element for the detection of nonylphenol in the surface water of hangzhou. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14 (2), 517-523. Analytical methodsJournal of Environmental Monitoring2012Nonylphenol (NP) is a representative environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical and persistent toxic pollutant. Previous studies have shown that the average concentration of NP in environmental waters was approximately tens to hundreds of ng L −1  and it could even reach up to tens of μg L −1 . A simple, fast and accurate method employing a novel solid-phase extraction element named “Magic Chemisorber” (MC) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a fluorescence detector (FLD) was used for detecting NP. The most important parameters that affect the extraction process, including extraction time, desorption time, desorption solvent and repeatability, were optimized. The MC-HPLC method showed good linearity with concentrations of NP from 10 to 200 μg L −1 , a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method was 0.44 and 1.47 μg L −1 , respectively. Compared to commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) glass fiber, MC had both higher capacity and recovery and it could be used repeatedly. Using the MC-HPLC method we found that the concentration of NP in river water from Hangzhou city ranged from 8.54 ± 1.23 μg L −1  (Qiantang River) to 65.77 ± 3.69 μg L −1  (Tiesha River), which was similar to that of international regions heavily polluted with NP and higher than that of Bohai Bay, the Yellow River and the Pearl River Delta in China. This level of NP pollution is possibly related to the rapid development of the textile, printing and paper industries of Zhejiang province.http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2012/em/c1em10731c#!divAbstractAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishDetermination of nonylphenol polyethoxylate in textiles. Lü, A. -., Wang, J. -., Feng, G. -., Zhang, Z., Kang, B., & Zhang, H. -. (2013). Determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylate in textiles. Wool Textile Journal, 41 (10), 53-55. Analytical methodsWool Textile Journal2013In this article, HPLC-FLD was used for determination of nonylphenol polyethoxylate in textiles. The normal method was soxhlet extraction. However, this method used a lot of organic solvent and need long time. The laboratory used ultrasonic wave extraction in order to reduce organic solvent and experiment time. The results indicated there was not much difference between soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic wave extraction. The recovery, precision and LOD of this method were satisfied.http://web.b.ebscohost.com/abstract?site=ehost&scope=site&jrnl=10031456&AN=93276973&h=2C0imNRV5mWTPpShbCALfHEHKicB%2b4T0Rk1uY%2fNoRdYIl5%2bAkLJP0Lf70orrEHkskDjfJIYsYWrb9xotkSJdVQ%3d%3d&crl=f&resultLocal=ErrCrlNoResults&resultNs=Ehost&crlhashurl=login.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26profile%3dehost%26scope%3dsite%26authtype%3dcrawler%26jrnl%3d10031456%26AN%3d93276973APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
ChineseDetermination of free and ethoxylated alkylphenols in leather with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ma, H., & Cheng, Y. (2010). Determination of free and ethoxylated alkylphenols in leather with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A , 1217(50), 7914-7920. Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2010An analytical approach was developed to determine nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO(n)) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO(n)) in leather samples involving the conversion of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) into the corresponding NP and OP. The four targets were extracted from samples using ultrasonic-assisted acetonitrile extraction. NP and OP in the extracts were directly isolated with hexane and quantitatively determined with 4-n-nonylphenol as internal standard by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) in the extracts, they were first converted into NP and OP with aluminum triiodide as cleavage agent, and the yielded NP and OP were determined by GC-MS. The contents of NPEO(n) and OPEO(n) were calculated by normalizing to NPEO(9) and OPEO(9), respectively. This method was properly validated and the real sample tests revealed the pollution significance of leather by NPEO(n) and OPEO(n).https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967310014391?via%3DihubAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishDetermination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in textiles by accelerated solvent extraction-solid phase extraction-silica adsorption chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.Ma, Q., Wang, C., Wang, X., Bai, H., Zhou, X., Xiao, H. -., et al. (2009). Determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates in textiles by accelerated solvent extraction-solid phase extraction-silica adsorption chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Fenxi Huaxue/ Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry , 37(1), 46-52. Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry,2009A comprehensive analytical method based on silica adsorption chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of nonylphenol ethoxylates and octylphenol ethoxylates in textiles. Various textile samples were extracted under 10. 3 MPa and 100 t by accelerated solvent extraction method with two static cycles using ethanol as the extraction solvent. The extract was cleaned up by carbon/NH2 solid phase extraction cartridge. After the chromatographic separation on a Waters Spherisorb S3W(150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm)column by acetonitrile-water gradient elution, qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out by ESI/MS in the positive ion mode. The limits of detection (LODs) for nonylphenol ethoxylates were in the range of 10 -40 μg/kg. The mean recoveries at the spiked level of 1-20 mg/kg were 81.4% -95.9% , with the relative standard deviation less than 12.5%. The limits of detection (LODs) for octylphenol ethoxylates were in the range of 10 -30 μg/kg. The mean recoveries at the spiked level of 1-20 mg/kg were 80.2% -96. 8% , with the relative standard deviation less than 13.0%. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and adapts to the inspection of alkylphenol ehthoxylates in textiles.http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-FXHX200901011.htmAPEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3 (OPEO) 68987-90-6; 9036-19-5; 2315-61-9; 2315-67-5
EnglishSources of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in wastewater-A substance flow analysis in stockholm, Sweden.Månsson, N., Sörme, L., Wahlberg, C., & Bergbäck, B. (2008). Sources of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in wastewater-A substance flow analysis in stockholm, Sweden. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, 8 (5-6), 445-456. Analytical methodsWater, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus,2008This is a study of the sources of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in wastewater, including the new observation that the main contribution is from textiles. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used chemicals in various applications that are partly under environmental restrictions within Europe. The study sets out to analyze the most important sources of this large group of organic compounds in an urban wastewater system. A substance flow analysis (SFA) of the technosphere in Stockholm, Sweden in 2004 was conducted, allowing a comparison of 13 groups of goods' emissions to wastewater. It was found that the groups of textiles and cleaning agents were the major sources to wastewater, while the group's personal care products and paint and lacquers give smaller contributions. The content of alkylphenol ethoxylates in goods, especially in textiles, is a most significant source and is probably valid for other urban areas as well. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11267-008-9186-6APEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
English Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece.Pothitou, P., & Voutsa, D. (2008). Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece. Chemosphere, 73(11), 1716-1723. Analytical methodsChemosphere2008Background, aim, and scope: In the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, environmental objectives for the proper quality of inland, surface, transitional, coastal, and ground waters have been set. Member states are required to identify chemical pollutants of significance in the water bodies, to establish emission control measures, and to achieve quality standards. A specific category of pollutants are the compounds that may possess endocrine-related functions known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This means that member states have the obligation to take action in order to prevent human exposure to these compounds via aquatic environment. The objective of this research was to study the occurrence and distribution of phenolic and steroid EDCs in inland waters and wastewaters discharged in the area of Thermaikos Gulf, Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from three rivers, four streams, and four municipal and industrial wastewaters from the area of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece, during the period 2005-2006. The samples were analyzed for 14 EDCs (nonylphenol, octylphenol, their mono- and di-ethoxylate oligomers, bisphenol A, estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, mestranol, and 17α-ethynylestradiol). The compounds were recovered by solid phase extraction and ultrasonic extraction from the dissolved phase and particulate phase, respectively, and determined by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Results revealed the presence of phenolic EDCs (NP, NP1EO, NP2EO, tOP, OP1EO, OP2EO, and BPA) in all water and wastewater samples. Steroid EDCs were not found at detectable concentrations. The relationships between field partition coefficients of EDCs and concentration of total suspended solids, dissolved, and particulate organic carbon were investigated. Discussion: Rivers exhibited concentrations of EDCs similar to minimally impacted surface waters worldwide. The concentrations of NP and OP occasionally exceeded the environmental quality criteria proposed for inland waters. The concentrations of EDCs in streams exhibited wide variations due to low flow rate in these systems and the impact of wastewaters from various pollution sources. Wastewater from tannery activities showed extremely high concentrations of NP, whereas relatively high concentrations of EDCs were determined in effluents from the industrial wastewater treatment plant. Field partition coefficients of EDCs are negatively correlated with concentrations of total suspended solids and dissolved organic carbon and positively correlated with particulate organic carbon. Conclusions: The examined rivers (Aliakmon, Axios, and Loudias) exhibited concentrations of EDCs similar to minimally impacted surface waters worldwide. However, special attention should be paid to these systems since the concentrations for NP and OP occasionally were above the proposed quality standards, revealing the impact of urban, industrial, and agricultural activities. High concentrations of EDCs were determined in streams, urban, and industrial wastewater posing significant risk to the aquatic environment they discharged. Recommendations and perspectives: The occurrence of EDCs in inland waters and wastewaters discharged to Thermaikos Gulf results in an increased risk to the marine environment. Thus, these systems should be regularly monitored, especially for NP, OP, and BPA that are considered as priority hazardous compounds in the Water Framework Directive. © Springer-Verlag 2009.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004565350801196XAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishSeparation of broadly distributed nonylphenol ethoxylates and determination of ethylene oxide oligomers in textile lubricants and emulsions by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sun, C., Baird, M., Anderson, H. A., & Brydon, D. L. (1996). Separation of broadly distributed nonylphenol ethoxylates and determination of ethylene oxide oligomers in textile lubricants and emulsions by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 731(1-2), 161-169. Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A1996A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method is described for separation and determination of ethoxylated nonylphenols. By using an amino bonded silica column with an acetonitrile-water gradient, the oligomers of ethoxylated nonylphenols with an average of 6 EO (ethylene oxide number) up to 40 EO were separated with satisfactory resolution. It was found that the partition of solutes between the stationary and mobile phases, and hydrogen bonding between salutes, solid-phase amino groups, water and acetonitrile were the main factors governing separation. The recoveries of total oligomers of nonylphenol-8 EO from a mixed emulsion with mineral oil, methyl oleate, peanut oil and the textile lubricant Blend 1 were 90.0 ± 10.2, 95.6 ± 7.9, 90.0 ± 9.5 and 107.2 ± 11.4%, respectively. The application of this method can be extended to determine non-ionic surfactants in other matrices.https://ac.els-cdn.com/0021967395012214/1-s2.0-0021967395012214-main.pdf?_tid=1efca022-067d-11e8-aee1-00000aacb361&acdnat=1517399690_9a53a2758fe64639677c9df3710976e9APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3 (OPEO) 68987-90-6; 9036-19-5; 2315-61-9; 2315-67-5
EnglishDetermination of alkyl-phenols in textiles by in-tube capillary solid-phase extraction-gas chromatographyZhang, L., Du, T., & Zhong, J. (2015). Determination of alkyl-phenols in textiles by in-tube capillary solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography. Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu ), 33(10), 1065-1070. Analytical methods Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu)2015An in-tube capillary solid-phase extraction (SPE)-gas chromatography (GC) method was developed for confirmation and quantitative determination of octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) in textiles. To make the in-tube capillary SPE column, the best SPE cartridge was chosen from four kinds of SPE cartridges. The adsorbent in the cartridge was used as the filling material to make the in-tube capillary SPE column. The nature, volume used, flow rate and adsorption capacity of the eluent were compared. Finally, the in-tube capillary solid-phase extraction was combined with gas chromatography to detect the alkyl phenols (APs). Abselut NEXUS extraction cartridge was chosen as the best solid phase extractant. The optimal in-tube capillary SPE extraction conditions were as follows: 1. 2 μL methanol and 1. 2 μL ultrapure water for activating the extraction column, 1. 2 μL methanol for eluting, 0. 4 μL/min for solution loading. The method showed a good linear relationship in the low concentration range, and the enrichment ratios for the APs were about 100 times. The detection limits of octylphenol and nonylphenol were 3. 7 μg/L and 4. 5 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries of octylphenol were 85. 6%-98. 2%, and those of nonylphenol were 83. 8%-95. 7%. The experimental results demonstrated that the method is simple, rapid, and useful for detecting APs in textiles.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930964APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
English A robust method for determining water-extractable alkylphenol polyethoxylates in textile products by reaction-based headspace gas chromatography. Zhang, S. -., Chai, X. -., Huang, B. -., & Mai, X. -. (2015). A robust method for determining water-extractable alkylphenol polyethoxylates in textile products by reaction-based headspace gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1406, 94-98. Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2015Alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), surfactants used in the production of textiles, have the potential to move from the fabric to the skin of the person wearing the clothes, posing an inherent risk of adverse health consequences. Therefore, the textile industry needs a fast, robust method for determining aqueous extractable APEO in fabrics. The currently-favored HPLC methods are limited by the presence of a mixture of analytes (due to the molecular weight distribution) and a lack of analytical standards for quantifying results. As a result, it has not been possible to reach consensus on a standard method for the determination of APEO in textiles. This paper addresses these limitations through the use of reaction-based head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Specifically, water is used to simulate body sweat and extract APEO. HI is then used to react the ethoxylate chains to depolymerize the chains into iodoethane that is quantified through HS-GC, providing an estimate of the average amount of APEO in the clothing. Data are presented to justify the optimal operating conditions; i.e., water extraction at 60. °C for 1. h and reaction with a specified amount of HI in the headspace vial at 135. °C for 4. h. The results show that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD. <. 10%) and good accuracy (recoveries from 95 to 106%) for the quantification of APEO content in textile and related materials. As such, the method should be a strong candidate to become a standard method for such determinations. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094137APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3 (OPEO) 68987-90-6; 9036-19-5; 2315-61-9; 2315-67-5
English Xenobiotic and steroid biotransformation enzymes in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) liver treated with an estrogenic compound, 4-nonylphenol.Arukwe, A., Förlin, L., & Goksøyr, A. (1997). Xenobiotic and steroid biotransformation enzymes in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) liver treated with an estrogenic compound, 4-nonylphenol. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16(12), 2576-2583. ToxicityEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry1997Hepatic microsomal biotransformation reactions with xenobiotic and steroid substrates have been investigated in 4-nonylphenol (NP; 1, 5, 25, and 125 mg/kg body weight)-treated juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in addition to control and estradiol-17b (5 mg/kg, positive control)-treated fish. Treatment of juvenile salmon with NP caused an initial increase and an apparent dose-dependent decrease in progesterone 6b-, 16a, and 17a-hydroxylase activities in liver microsomes. 7-Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities were also reduced. Plasma levels of estradiol-17b (E2) were lowered 24– 43% as a result of NP treatment. Immunochemical analysis of CYP1A, CYP2K-like, and CYP3A-like proteins showed 18%, 47%, and 30% reductions in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay absorbance levels, respectively, in the groups treated with 125 mg NP/kg fish. The group treated with E2 also showed similar reductions. In summary, the present study has demonstrated variations in steroid hydroxylases, cytochrome P450 isozymes, and conjugating enzyme levels in NP-treated juvenile salmon. These results represent a novel aspect of NP effects not previously demonstrated with an environmental estrogen in any fish species or lower vertebratehttp://lib.gig.ac.cn/local/ejournal/ETC/ETC1997/1612/ETC-1997-16(12)-2576-2583.pdfAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
English Effect of 4-octylphenol on germ cell number in cultured human fetal gonads.Bendsen, E., Laursen, S. B., Olesen, C., Westergaard, L. G., Andersen, C. Y., & Byskov, A. G. (2001). Effect of 4-octylphenol on germ cell number in cultured human fetal gonads. Human Reproduction , 16(2), 236-243. ToxicityHuman Reproduction2001This study evaluates whether a hormone disruptor found in environment, 4-octylphenol, affects the rate of proliferation of germ cells from human fetal gonads during a 3 week culture period. Five testis and five ovaries were obtained from fetuses of women undergoing legal abortions between the 6th and 9th week of fetal life, representing the period where early gonadal differentiation takes place. Each gonad was divided into equal sized test and control tissue. The test tissue was exposed to a continued presence of 10 μmol/l 4-octylphenol in the culture medium. The cultures were terminated by fixation of the tissues, which where then processed for histology and serially sectioned. The mitotic index of the germ cells (i.e. number of mitosis per 100 germ cells) and the number of germ cells per area was determined. Each of the five testes cultured in 4-octylphenol exhibited a significantly reduced mitotic index and number of pre-spermatogonia compared to the control, whereas none of the five ovaries exposed to 4-octylphenol revealed any difference compared to the control. It is concluded that 4-octylphenol exerts a sex-specific effect on male germ cells.https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/16/2/236/649613APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishNonylphenolic compounds in drinking and surface waters downstream of treated textile and pulp and paper effluents: A survey and preliminary assessment of their potential effects on public health and aquatic life.Berryman, D., Houde, F., DeBlois, C., & O'Shea, M. (2004). Nonylphenolic compounds in drinking and surface waters downstream of treated textile and pulp and paper effluents: A survey and preliminary assessment of their potential effects on public health and aquatic life. Chemosphere, 56(3), 247-255. ToxicityChemosphere2004Eleven drinking water treatment plants, located downstream of textile plants or pulp and paper mills, have been sampled monthly during a year for the analysis of 17 nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP1-17EO) and two nonylphenoxycarboxylic acids (NP1-2EC). At all but one plant, results in the drinking water, for the sum of these 19 substances, range between below detection levels and 6.7 μg/l. Annual means are between 0.02 and 2.8 μg/l. At the other plant, the yearly average concentration is 10.4 μg/l and the monthly maximum is 43.3 μg/l. In the surface (pre-treatment) water, the annual mean concentrations of the 11 plants range between 0.14 and 17.8 μg/l and the recorded instantaneous maximum is 55.3 μg/l. According to Canadian health authorities, drinking water is a negligible route of human exposure to nonylphenolic compounds, even at the highest concentrations found in this study. After transformation of the data into nonylphenol equivalents, about 20% of the surface water samples exceed the Canadian 1 μg/l nonylphenol water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Some results also exceed Québec's 6 μg/l nonylphenol guideline. The efficiency of the plants in removing nonylphenolic compounds from drinking water is highly variable, ranging from 11% to 99%. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653504001596?via%3DihubAPEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishUrinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population.Calafat, A. M., Kuklenyik, Z., Reidy, J. A., Caudill, S. P., Ekong, J., & Needham, L. L. (2005). Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environmental Health Perspectives , 113(4), 391-395. ToxicityEnvironmental Health Perspectives2005Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which are used in baby bottles, as protective coatings on food containers, and for composites and sealants in dentistry. 4-Nonylphenol (NP) is used to make nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonionic surfactants applied as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing, or stabilizing agents in industrial, agricultural, and domestic consumer products. The potential for human exposure to BPA and NP is high because of their widespread use. We measured BPA and NP in archived urine samples from a reference population of 394 adults in the United States using isotope-dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration ranges of BPA and NP were similar to those observed in other human populations. BPA was detected in 95% of the samples examined at concentrations > or = 0.1 microg/L urine; the geometric mean and median concentrations were 1.33 microg/L (1.36 microg/g creatinine) and 1.28 microg/L (1.32 microg/g creatinine), respectively; the 95th percentile concentration was 5.18 microg/L (7.95 microg/g creatinine). NP was detected in 51% of the samples examined > or = 0.1 microg/L. The median and 95th percentile concentrations were < 0.1 microg/L and 1.57 microg/L (1.39 microg/g creatinine), respectively. The frequent detection of BPA suggests widespread exposure to this compound in residents of the United States. The lower frequency of detection of NP than of BPA could be explained by a lower exposure of humans to NP, by different pharmacokinetic factors (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination), by the fact that 4-n-nonylphenol--the measured NP isomer--represents a small percentage of the NP used in commercial mixtures, or a combination of all of the above. Additional research is needed to determine the best urinary biomarker(s) to assess exposure to NP. Despite the sample population's nonrepresentativeness of the U.S. population (although sample weights were used to improve the extent to which the results represent the U.S. population) and relatively small size, this study provides the first reference range of human internal dose levels of BPA and NP in a demographically diverse human population.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1278476/APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
English Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004.Calafat, A. M., Ye, X., Wong, L. -., Reidy, J. A., & Needham, L. L. (2008). Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004. Environmental Health Perspectives , 116(1), 39-44. ToxicityEnvironmental Health Perspectives2008Background
Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States.

Objectives
We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population.

Methods
We measured the total (free plus conjugated) urinary concentrations of BPA and tOP in 2,517 participants ≥ 6 years of age in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

Results
BPA and tOP were detected in 92.6% and 57.4% of the persons, respectively. Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21). Females had statistically higher BPA LSGM concentrations than males (p = 0.043). Children had higher concentrations than adolescents (p < 0.001), who in turn had higher concentrations than adults (p = 0.003). LSGM concentrations were lowest for participants in the high household income category (> $45,000/year).

Conclusions
Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income. These first U.S. population representative concentration data for urinary BPA and tOP should help guide public health research priorities, including studies of exposure pathways, potential health effects, and risk assessment.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2199288/APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishThe effects of 4-nonylphenol in rats: A multigeneration reproduction study.Chapin, R. E., Delaney, J., Wang, Y., Lanning, L., Davis, B., Collins, B., et al. (1999). The effects of 4-nonylphenol in rats: A multigeneration reproduction study. Toxicological Sciences, 52(1), 80-91. ToxicityToxicological Sciences1999The alkylphenol breakdown products of alkylphenol ethoxylates have been shown in in vitro studies to be weakly estrogenic, but few in vivo data address this issue in mammals. Because estrogens have been found to be most potent during developmental/perinatal exposures, this study maximized developmental exposure to nonylphenol (NP) by treating 3.5 generations of Sprague-Dawley rats to NP in diet at 200, 650, and 2000 ppm to determine the range and severity of any toxicity. Dose rate was higher for younger rats; calculated dose ranges were 9-35, 30-100, and 100-350 mg/kg/d for the low (200NP), middle (650NP), and high (2000NP) dose groups, respectively. There were adult (F0, F1, F2) and postnatal day (pnd) 21 (F1, F2, F3) necropsies; the oldest F3 rats were killed on pnd 55-58. Body weight gain was reduced by 8-10% in the 650NP and 2000NP groups. Vaginal opening was accelerated by approximately 2 days (650NP) and approximately 6 days (2000NP) in F1, F2, and F3 generations. Uterine weights at pnd 21 were increased in 650NP (14%) and 2000NP (50%) F1 females, but not in other generations. Testis descent, anogenital distance, and preputial separation were not consistently changed. No consistent changes were seen in pup number, weight or viability, litter indices, or other functional reproductive measures. Relative ovary weight in F2 adults was decreased at 650NP and 2000NP by 12%; relative ovary was unchanged in other generations. Follicle counts were unchanged in F2 adults. Sperm indices, including CASA measures, were unchanged in F0 and F1 males. In F2 rats, epididymal sperm density was reduced by 8% and 13% at 650NP and 2000NP, respectively. Testicular spermatid count was reduced by 13% in 2000NP F2 males; testis and epididymis weights were unchanged. Erosion of gastric and duodenal mucosa was monitored grossly and microscopically, and never found. Kidney weights were increased in 650NP and 2000NP males, and renal medullary tubular dilatation and cyst formation were noted in all generations of males, and often at the lowest dose tested. These data show that NP had limited effects on the reproductive system in the presence of measurable nephrotoxicity. The F2 sperm effects are either statistical/biological "noise," or imply heretofore unknown pharmacokinetics or toxicodynamics. These sperm data should be interpreted cautiously until the findings are repeated.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10568701APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishBiomonitoring of alkylphenols exposure for textile and housekeeping workersChen, M., Lee, W., Chung, H., Guo, B., & Mao, I. (2005). Biomonitoring of alkylphenols exposure for textile and housekeeping workers. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry , 85(4-5), 335-347. ToxicityInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry20054-Nonylphenols (NP), 4-tert-ocytylphenols (OP), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenols (BP) are ubiquitous in daily foodstuffs. These alkylphenols are widely used in industry, and NP and OP are endocrine disruptors. This study involved biomonitoring of the alkylphenols in plasma and urine from textile and housekeeping workers. The objective was to measure the internal level of alkylphenols and clarify the occupational exposure of alkylphenols for these two working groups. Forty textile workers and 33 housekeeping workers were recruited in this study. Urine and plasma samples were enzymatic deconjugation, followed by cleanup with solid-phase extraction. After extraction, the samples were analysed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The method was validated with the recovery and reproducibility test. The measurement results demonstrated apparent occupational exposure, since the urinary alkylphenols were significantly higher in the end-of-shift samples, 42.06 ± 46.63 ng/mL, than in the preshift samples, 23.50 ± 17.34 ng/mL, for the textile exposed workers. Meanwhile, the three kinds of alkylphenols were commonly detected in the biological samples. The plasma concentrations were higher than the urine concentrations. The average plasma concentrations of NP, OP, and BP were 53.21 ± 49.74, 16.02 ± 2.81, and 25.83 ± 7.10 ng/g for the housekeeping workers and 6.25 ± 4.83, 6.52 ± 8.67, and 6.47 ± 13.34 ng/mL in urine, respectively. The results of this study suggest that multiple exposure routes, including dietary intake, inhalation, and skin absorption, might contribute to the internal alkylphenol dose. The potential adverse effects caused by exposure of occupational workers is concerned.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03067310412331315575APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; (OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
English Subchronic toxicity (90-day) study with para-nonylphenol in rats.Cunny, H. C., Mayes, B. A., Rosica, K. A., Trutter, J. A., & Van Miller, J. P. (1997). Subchronic toxicity (90-day) study with para-nonylphenol in rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology , 26(2), 172-178. ToxicityRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology1997As a component to the risk assessment process forpara-nonylphenol (NP; CASRN 84852-15-3), a 90-day study was conducted in rats following U.S. EPA TSCA guidelines and Good Laboratory Practice regulations. NP was administered to four groups of rats at dietary concentrations of 0, 200, 650, or 2000 ppm which corresponded to approximate dietary intakes of 0, 15, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day, respectively. There were 25 rats/sex/group in the control and high-dose groups and 15 rats/sex/group in the low- and middose groups. Ten of the 25 rats/sex in the control and high-dose groups were designated as recovery animals and were maintained on control diets for 4 weeks after completion of the 90-day exposure period to assess the reversibility of any effects which might be observed. To evaluate for the possible weak estrogen-like activity that has been reported for NP in a number of screening assays, estrous cyclicity was monitored using vaginal cytology during Week 8 of the study, and sperm count, motility, and morphology were evaluated at termination. In-life effects from NP exposure were limited to small decreases in body weight and food consumption in the 2000-ppm dose group. Postmortem measurements at Week 14 indicated a dose-related kidney weight increase in males and a decrease in renal hyaline globules/droplets in males from the high-dose group. The kidney weights showed complete recovery following the 4-week postdosing recovery period. Due to the small magnitude of the changes (i.e., all weights were within or near laboratory historical control values) and the lack of correlating clinical or histopathological changes, the kidney weight alterations were not considered toxicologically significant. The biological significance of reduced hyaline in the kidneys of male rats from the high-dose group is uncertain. Renal tubular hyaline is associated with the rat-specific protein, α-2u-globulin, and, therefore, this finding was not considered toxicologically relevant to humans. No other effects attributable to NP were observed. No changes were observed for estrous cycling, sperm evaluations, or effects on endocrine organs. NP, therefore, did not manifest any estrogen-like activity as measured in these parameters at dietary concentrations as high as 2000 ppm, the maximum dose administered in this study. Based on the minor findings for the 2000-ppm dose group, the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) for NP in this study is considered to be 650 ppm in the diet, corresponding to an approximate intake of 50 mg/kg/day.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230097911545APEOs84852-15-3
EnglishBioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in marine animals— A re-evaluationEkelund, R., Bergman, Å., Granmo, Å., & Berggren, M. (1990). Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol in marine animals— A re-evaluation. Environmental Pollution , 64(2), 107-120. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(90)90108-OToxicityEnvironmental Pollution1990The bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been studied in shrimps (Crangon grangon L.), mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) and sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) exposed to (14)C-NP in running seawater. NP was extracted with high recovery from tissues which were pretreated with pancreatic enzymes. The bioconcentration factor determined of NP in fish was 1300 and in mussels, 3400. These values are 5 and 340 times higher, respectively, than values reported earlier.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092296APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
English Photoperiod-dependent effects of 4-tert-octylphenol on adherens and gap junction proteins in bank vole seminiferous tubulesHejmej, A., Kotula-Balak, M., Chojnacka, K., Kuras, P., Lydka-Zarzycka, M., & Bilinska, B. (2013). Photoperiod-dependent effects of 4-tert-octylphenol on adherens and gap junction proteins in bank vole seminiferous tubules. International Journal of EndocrinologyToxicityInternational Journal of Endocrinology2013In the present study we evaluated in vivo and in vitro effects of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) on the expression and distribution of adherens and gap junction proteins, N-cadherin, β-catenin, and connexin 43 (Cx43), in testes of seasonally breeding rodents, bank voles. We found that in bank vole testes expression and distribution of N-cadherin, β-catenin, and Cx43 were photoperiod dependent. Long-term treatment with OP (200 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in the reduction of junction proteins expressions (, ) and their delocalization in the testes of males kept in long photoperiod, whereas in short-day animals slight increase of Cx43 (), N-cadherin, and β-catenin (statistically nonsignificant) levels was observed. Effects of OP appeared to be independent of FSH and were maintained during in vitro organ culture, indicating that OP acts directly on adherens and gap junction proteins in the testes. An experiment performed using an antiestrogen ICI 182,780 demonstrated that the biological effects of OP on β-catenin and Cx43 involve an estrogen receptor-mediated response. Taken together, in bank vole organization of adherens and gap junctions and their susceptibility to OP are related to the length of photoperiod. Alterations in cadherin/catenin and Cx43-based junction may partially result from activation of estrogen receptor α and/or β signaling pathway.https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/134589/APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishMultigenerational study of the hepatic effects exerted by the consumption of nonylphenol- and 4-octylphenol-contaminated drinking water in Sprague–Dawley rats Hernández-Rodríguez, G., Zumbado, M., Luzardo, O. P., Monterde, J. G., Blanco, A., & Boada, L. D. (2007). Multigenerational study of the hepatic effects exerted by the consumption of nonylphenol- and 4-octylphenol-contaminated drinking water in Sprague–Dawley rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology,23 (1), 73-81 doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2006.07.004ToxicityEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology2007Our multigenerational study evaluates the hepatic effects of the xenoestrogens nonylphenol (NP), and 4-octylphenol (4OP) on male and female rats when they are exposed uninterruptedly, from conception to adult age, to tap water containing 25 ppm of NP or 4OP. Our results showed that these compounds did not induce any change in liver/body weight ratio (relative liver weight, RLW). In the morphological analysis we did not find evident signs of cytotoxicity. The most relevant findings were the presence of both an increase in the apoptotic index and in the percentage of binuclear hepatocytes in livers from exposed animals. Additionally, our study revealed the presence of hepatocellular glycogenosis (mainly in 4OP-exposed rats): the type of glycogen accumulated was in aggregates (gamma-glycogen), a non-functional form of glycogen. This study demonstrates that, at levels close to those described in the environment, NP and 4OP are capable of inducing a number of hepatic effects, potentially related with adaptive, and/or metabolic alterations of liver tissue.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668906000974APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; (OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
English Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in fischer and wistar ratsHossaini, A., Dalgaard, M., Vinggaard, A. M., Pakarinen, P., & Larsen, J. (2003). Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in fischer and wistar rats. Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 17(5), 607-615. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2003.05.001 ToxicityReproductive Toxicology20034-tert-Octylphenol is a non-ionic surfactant used as a detergent, emulsifier and wetting agent. It is generally accepted that it acts as a weak estrogenic substance when evaluated in in vitro and in vivo short-term screening assays. The sensitivity of animal species (mouse versus rat), strain (inbred versus outbred) has been a matter of concern when selecting assay type for testing of estrogenicity of chemicals. The present study was designed to investigate whether the choice of different animal strain, could affect the outcomes of studies. Fischer and Wistar adult male rats were exposed to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 microg/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol benzoate decreased the weight of all investigated reproductive organs, decreased sperm production and increased seminiferous tubular degeneration in both strains. More progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology were observed in the Fischer rats. Oral administration of octylphenol at 400 mg/kg bw to both rat strains increased prolactin levels but had no effect on LH, FSH, testosterone or inhibin. In the octylphenol-treated Fischer rats the weights of the seminal vesicles and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle were significantly decreased, whereas only the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle was affected in Wistar rats. The weights of all other reproductive organs and sperm count were unaffected. It is concluded that there might be an organ specific difference in sensitivity between the two strains with the Fischer rat being the most sensitive rat model as demonstrated mainly by the more progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology in estradiol benzoate-treated Fischer rats but also by the decrease in seminal vesicle weight in octylphenol-treated rats.http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/14555199APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishOccurrence, human intake and biodegradation of estrogen-like nonylphenols and octylphenols.Huang, S. -., Tuan, N. N., & Lee, K. (2016). Occurrence, human intake and biodegradation of estrogen-like nonylphenols and octylphenols. Current Drug Metabolism , 17(3), 292-302. ToxicityCurrent Drug Metabolism2016BACKGROUND:
Long-chain alkylphenols, such as nonylphenols and octylphenols, are man-made compounds with estrogen-like activity and considered to be endocrine disputing chemicals. They are known to influence sexual development and reproduction of humans and other animals, therefore cause health and ecological concerns.

OBJECTIVE:
This review aims to identify the key findings presented in recent scientific literature with respect to the presence of long-chain alkylphenols in food, intake by different populations and describe the metabolism by human and the mechanisms to disrupt the estrogenic activity of nonylphenols and octylphenols by bacteria and fungi in the environment.

METHOD:
The current knowledge related to the physicochemical properties, source, occurrence, toxic effects, level in foods, human intake, elimination and metabolism of long-chain alkylphenols was summarized.

RESULTS:
Long-chain alkylphenols have been detected in soil, surface and ground water, sediments, wastewater effluent, air and in most foods. The daily human intake of 4-nonylphenols and 4-octylphenols has been compared among different population. A comprehensive summary of the major degradation pathways and mechanism in bacteria, fungi, yeasts and vertebrates was described.

CONCLUSION:
The findings of this review revealed the wide distribution of long-chain alkylphenols in various environments and contamination in foods. Therefore, further investigation of long-term exposure is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the potential health risks to humans. The diverse biodegradation mechanisms can be used in the removal of these compounds before entering food chains. The review provides indication as to how it might be possible to reduce the adverse effects on human health from estrogen-like long-chain alkylphenols.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26651979APEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishPrepubertal exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol induces apoptosis of testicular germ cells in adult rat.Kim, S., Lee, H., Yang, H., Kim, H., & Yoon, Y. (2004). Prepubertal exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol induces apoptosis of testicular germ cells in adult rat. Archives of Andrology , 50(6), 427-441. ToxicityArchives of Andrology2004The effects of chronic exposure of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) on the testicular development of prepubertal male rats were evaluated. 4 weeks old rats were injected with 0.8 µg of estradiol valerate (EV) or 20, 40, or 80 mg of OP three times a week for one month. A marked reduction of the size and weight of the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle was observed in all the three dosages. Serum testosterone concentration was dramatically decreased while serum LH concentration was increased. Seminiferous tubules were reduced in size and showed no mature spermatozoa or late-stage developing spermatids. In addition, testicular germ cells undergoing apoptosis were obviously increased in all the treated groups. The expression of bcl-xL mRNA was significantly decreased in the OP treated groups, whereas the expressions of bcl-2 and bax mRNA were not significantly changed. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that OP severely reduce the size and/or function of the male reproductive organs due to increased apoptosis of testicular germ cells and the decreased biosynthesis of testosterone.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01485010490475093APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishNeural aromatase transcript and protein levels in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) are modulated by the ubiquitous water pollutant, 4-nonylphenol. Kortner, T. M., Mortensen, A. S., Hansen, M. D., & Arukwe, A. (2009). Neural aromatase transcript and protein levels in atlantic salmon (salmo salar) are modulated by the ubiquitous water pollutant, 4-nonylphenol. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 164(1), 91-99. ToxicityGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology2009At present, there are no known direct occurrences of nonylphenol (NP) in nature. Therefore, its presence in nature is solely a consequence of human activities. NP is generated through degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates released mainly from textile, metal working, institutional cleansing and laundry cleaning, but few data on the amount of the release is available. These compounds have been shown to affect several biological processes, including the endocrine systems, in a wide number of species. The cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19) is the rate-limiting step in estrogen production, and is known to be a potential target for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as NP. Teleost fish generally have a high brain aromatase activity, and the effects of EDCs in fish brain is not thoroughly investigated. In this study, juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to waterborne concentrations of the synthetic pharmaceutical and xenoestrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2; 5ng/L) and the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP; 5 and 50microg/L) for 72h. Brain tissue and blood were sampled from individual fish. Gene expression patterns of Cyp19 isoforms were determined by quantitative PCR, aromatase protein immunoreactivity in the brain was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, and aromatase activity was analyzed using the tritiated water-release assay. Plasma estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels were measured by EIA. In the brain, EE2 increased the mRNA expression of Cyp19b almost threefold compared to the solvent control, whereas Cyp19a levels were unaffected by EE2 treatment. In contrast, both NP concentrations produced significant reduction of Cyp19a expression. Immunohistochemical aromatase protein reactivity was localized in several brain regions, but no apparent quantitative effects of the exposures were observed. Immunoblotting analysis showed that EE2 and NP produced a slight increase in brain immunoreactive aromatase protein band, compared with controls. Plasma levels of E2 increased twofold when treated with EE2 and 5microg NP/L, and threefold when exposed to 50microg NP/L. In general, the present study shows that the parallel biochemical, transcriptional and cellular detection of neural aromatase for endocrine-disrupting effects from EE2 and NP may be observed at specific levels of the biological organization.http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/19467236APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishAPEOs in leather processing - A survey.Ma, H. -., Huang, X. -., & Zhang, H. -. (2011). APEOs in leather processing - A survey. 31st IULTCS CongressToxicityInstitutional2011n.a.https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:18218:-2:ed-1:v1:enAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishReview of the persistence of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in aquatic environmentsMaguire, R. J. (1999). Review of the persistence of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in aquatic environments. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 34(1), 37-78. ToxicityWater Quality Research Journal of Canada1999Alkylphenol ethoxylates, in particular nonylphenol ethoxylates, are widely used nonionic surfactants that are discharged in high quantities to sewage treatment plants and directly to the environment in areas where there is no sewage or industrial waste treatment. This article reviews the treatability of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol in sewage treatment plants and their persistence in aquatic environments. Nonylphenol ethoxylates can be biologically degraded in sewage treatment plants and in natural environments. Some of the degradation products, including nonylphenol, are more persistent than the parent surfactants and they are found in receiving waters of sewage treatment plants. Nonylphenol in particular is found at high concentrations in some sewage sludges that may be spread on agricultural lands. While some sewage treatment plants discharge significant amounts of nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation products in their final effluents and digested sludges compared to what enters the plant, others degrade nonylphenol ethoxylates more or less completely. The differences in treatment efficiency of such compounds and their degradation products among different sewage treatment plants have been attributed to the load of the surfactants in influent streams, plant design and operating conditions, and other factors such as temperature of treatment. The highest nonylphenol ethoxylate elimination rates were achieved in plants characterized by low sludge-loading rates and nitrifying conditions. In natural waters, it appears that parent nonylphenol ethoxylates are not persistent, but some degradation products may have moderate persistence, especially under anaerobic conditions. Recent results from mesocosm experiments indicate moderate persistence of nonylphenol in sediments, with half-lives of 28 to 104 days. Microbial acclimation to the chemicals is an important determinant of persistence vis-a-vis biodegradation. Sunlight photodegradation of such products is also likely important. Further research on the persistence in natural environments of the lower ethoxylate and carboxylate degradation products, as well as nonylphenol, is necessary. Based on the limited data available, nonylphenol and the lower ethoxylates and carboxylates are persistent in groundwater. They are also persistent in landfills under anaerobic conditions, but they do not appear to be persistent in soil under aerobic conditions. Recommendations are made for further research in order to more fully characterize the treatability of nonylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products in sewage treatment plants and their persistence in the natural environment.

Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE) are discharged into the environment primarily from textile and pulp and paper production facilities. Acute adverse effects have been reported in invertebrates, fish, mammals and algae. An assessment is required to determine the exposure levels and the risk they may pose to the environment and human health in Canada. The treatability of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol in sewage treatment plants, and their persistence in aquatic environments are discussed. Nonylphenol in particular is found at high concentrations in some sewage sludges that may be spread on agricultural lands. In natural water, NPE are not persistent, but some degradation products may have moderate persistence especially under aerobic conditions.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285539172_Review_of_the_persistence_of_nonylphenol_and_nonylphenol_ethoxylates_in_aquatic_environmentsAPEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3; (OPEO) 68987-90-6; 9036-19-5; 2315-61-9; 2315-67-5
EnglishAlkylphenol ethoxylates: Science, regulatory status, and future outlook.Naylor, C. G. (2001). Alkylphenol ethoxylates: Science, regulatory status, and future outlook. AATCC Magazine , 1(3), 34-38. ToxicityAATCC Magazine2001Alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) surfactants are used in the manufacture and finishing of textiles as well as a multitude of cleaning applications and other industrial processes. This article reviews advances since that time in the understanding of their fate in the environment, toxicology, current regulatory status, and future outlook.

Alkylphenol ethoxylates: Science, regulatory status, and future outlook. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286983230_Alkylphenol_ethoxylates_Science_regulatory_status_and_future_outlook [accessed Dec 18 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286983230_Alkylphenol_ethoxylates_Science_regulatory_status_and_future_outlookAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
English Environmental fate and safety of nonylphenol ethoxylates.Naylor, C. G. (1995). Environmental fate and safety of nonylphenol ethoxylates. Textile Chemist and Colorist , 27(4), 29-33. ToxicityTextile Chemist and Colorist1995Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE), surfactants commonly used in many agricultural emulsion systems such as pesticides, industrial processes, and industrial and household cleaning products, are perceived by some users as hazardous to the environment. The producers of NPE have a great deal of information on NPE environmental fate and effects which gives reassurance to the agricultural emulsifier industry and water quality regulators that they pose minimal risk to the environment and human health. NPE, which have been tested thoroughly for effects toward mammals and aquatic life, exhibit toxicity patterns similar to other widely used surfactants. They are highly treatable in aerobic biological treatment plants; studies in U.S. wastewater plants have shown up to 99.8% removal. Monitoring of a random selection of U.S. rivers judged most likely to receive NPE showed that water and sediment concentrations are very low or undetectable. One NPE metabolite, nonylphenol (NP), poses a potential risk since it is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Evidence indicates, however, that NP is rapidly removed by biological action and is not formed under aerobic conditions. Wastewater treatment plant effluents, river waters and sediments do not contain levels of NP that would suggest accumulation to toxic thresholds in the aquatic environment. NP and NPE degrade in soil and are not taken up by growing plants. More work is underway by NPE producers to elucidate better the dynamics and mechanisms of NPE biodegradation.https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0030382219&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=Environmental+fate+and+safety+of+nonylphenol+ethoxylates&st2=&sid=d1b01cdaad98b060fe43f10379b8e06c&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=71&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28Environmental+fate+and+safety+of+nonylphenol+ethoxylates%29&relpos=2&citeCnt=5&searchTerm=APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3;
EnglishThe fate of nonylphenol ethoxylates in textile mill effluents.O'Neal, W. G. (2002). The fate of nonylphenol ethoxylates in textile mill effluents. Canadian Textile Journal , 118(6), 24-26. ToxicityCanadian Textile Journal2002Textile mill effluent (TME) is a complex mixture of substances with wide ranging physical, chemical and toxicity characteristics. Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), commonly used surfactants, are present in TME and recent government environmental assessments have found they pose significant risk when discharged into streams. Given their continuing presence in the processes, an understanding of biological treatability of NPEs is vital to develop a control strategy. Detailed background to the use of these chemicals is provided. In case studies of two textile mills and one municipal wastewater treatment facility, the influents and effluents were sampled and tested for NPE and NP (nonylphenol). The test procedures were described. While NP and NPE can contribute to mill and municipal effluent aquatic toxicity, the case studies show that they can be adequately treated using conventional biological treatment technologies. Site-specific standards can eliminate adverse impact on receiving streams. Further findings are summarised. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298017515_The_fate_of_nonylphenol_ethoxylates_in_textile_mill_effluentsAPEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3;
English The effects of nonyl phenoxypolyethoxyl ethanol on cell damage pathway gene expression in SK-NSH cellsPark, S., Hwang, I. -., Kim, J. -., Kang, H. -., Park, S. -., Gil, H. -., et al. (2015). The effects of nonyl phenoxypolyethoxyl ethanol on cell damage pathway gene expression in SK-NSH cells. Korean Journal of Internal Medicine , 30(6), 873-883. ToxicityKorean Journal of Internal Medicine2015BACKGROUND/AIMS:
Most pesticide formulations contain both chief and additive ingredients. But, the additives may not have been tested as thoroughly as the chief ingredients. The surfactant, nonyl phenoxypolyethoxylethanol (NP40), is an additive frequently present in pesticide formulations. We investigated the effects of NP40 and other constituents of a validamycin pesticide formulation on cell viability and on the expression of genes involved in cell damage pathways.

METHODS:
The effects of validamycin pesticide ingredients on cell viability and of NP40 on the mRNA expression of 80 genes involved in nine key cellular pathways were examined in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cell line.

RESULTS:
The chemicals present in the validamycin pesticide formulation were cytotoxic to SK-N-SH cells and NP40 showed the greatest cytotoxicity. A range of gene expression changes were identified, with both up- and down-regulation of genes within the same pathway. However, all genes tested in the necrosis signaling pathway were down-regulated and all genes tested in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway were up-regulated. The median fold-change in gene expression was significantly higher in the cell cycle checkpoint/arrest pathway than in the hypoxia pathway category (p = 0.0064). The 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene, within the heat shock protein/unfolded protein response category, showed the highest individual increase in expression (26.1-fold).

CONCLUSIONS:
NP40 appeared to be particularly harmful, inducing gene expression changes that indicated genotoxicity, activation of the cell death (necrosis signaling) pathway, and induction of the 70 kDa heat shock protein 4 gene.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552463APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3;
English Oral p-tert-octylphenol exposures induce minimal toxic or estrogenic effects in adult female sprague-dawley rats.Sahambi, S. K., Pelland, A., Cooke, G. M., Schrader, T., Tardif, R., Charbonneau, M., et al. (2010). Oral p-tert-octylphenol exposures induce minimal toxic or estrogenic effects in adult female sprague-dawley rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues, 73(9), 607-622. ToxicityJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues2010Contamination of the environment with endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) has raised concerns about potential health hazards for humans and wildlife. Human and wildlife exposure to one such ubiquitous chemical, p-tert-octylphenol (OP), are likely, due to its persistence in the environment and its presence in food, water, and items of daily use. OP is reported to bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and alter expression of estrogen-responsive genes. Detrimental effects of OP exposures on the reproductive system have been observed in most, but not all, in vivo experiments. This study examined estrogenic effects of oral exposures of adult female rats to OP. In vitro, OP bound weakly to human ER and a co-activator protein, and accelerated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given OP by gavage daily for 35 d (25, 50, or 125 mg/kg/d). Body and organ weights and ovarian follicle populations were not significantly altered in OP-exposed adult rats, despite detectable levels of OP in reproductive organs. The estrous cycle of rats was slightly altered, but there were no significant estrogen-like changes in histomorphology or gene expression of the uterus. Prepubertal rats given 125 or 250 mg/kg OP by gavage for 3 d had reduced body weight compared to vehicle-exposed rats but failed to show any uterotrophic response, although 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE, 10 microg/kg/d, ip) induced a threefold increase in uterine weight. Overall, results suggest that toxicity will occur before estrogenic effects with oral exposures to OP. Relevant environmental exposures likely pose little risk for estrogenic effects.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20391140APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8
EnglishAn ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in the aquatic environment.Servos, M. R., Maguire, R. J., Bennie, D. T., Lee, H. -. Cureton, P. M., Davidson, N., et al. (2003). An ecological risk assessment of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in the aquatic environment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment , 9(2), 569-587. ToxicityHuman and Ecological Risk Assessment2003Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used for industrial, commercial, institutional and household purposes in Canada. Ethoxylation of nonylphenol (NP) occurs upon reaction with ethylene oxide, producing NPEs, although NP is also used in the production of the antioxidant tris(nonylphenol)phosphite. NP and NPEs are not produced naturally, and the primary route of environmental exposure to NP and NPEs is via textile mill, pulp and paper mill and municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents. NPEs occur as complex mixtures and are described by the average ethoxylate chain length, which ranges from 1 to 100. The environmental fate of NPEs is strongly dependent on the effluent and, the degree and type of treatment to which the effluent is subjected. An ecological risk assessment was performed to determine if exposure to NP and NPEs results in effects on the Canadian environment, based on current use patterns. The Canadian ecological risk assessment found that adverse effects on aquatic organisms are likely, although assumptions were made with respect to appropriate dilution factors.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713609923APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3;
English The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of textile preparation auxiliaries on the photochemical treatment of nonylphenol ethoxylate.Arslan-Alaton, I., Shayin, S., & Olmez-Hanci, T. (2012). The hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of textile preparation auxiliaries on the photochemical treatment of nonylphenol ethoxylate. Environmental Technology , 33(4), 419-427. Anti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Technology2012The present paper deals with the effects of frequently used textile preparation chemicals and common ions on the H2O2/UV-C treatment of a commercially important and slowly biodegradable nonionic surfactant, namely a nonylphenol bearing 10 ethoxylated chains. For this purpose, the effect of soda ash carbonate (0–5.0 g L−1), two phosphonic acid-based organic sequestering agents (0–2.5 g L−1) and chloride (0–3.0 g L−1) at two different pH values (3.5 and 10.5) as hydroxyl radical scavengers was experimentally investigated. Among the studied textile preparation chemicals and hydroxyl radical scavengers, the decreasing order of hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity was established as diethylene triamine penta-methylene phosphonic acid>1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid>soda ash carbonate at pH 10.5>chloride at pH 3.5>chloride at pH 10.5.http://iahr.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09593330.2011.578152#.Wjfrit_iaM8APEOs(NP-10:) 127087-87-0; (altri NPEO:) 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishSynthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO flower and pseudo-sphere: Nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation under UV and solar irradiation.Ashar, A., Iqbal, M., Bhatti, I. A., Ahmad, M. Z., Qureshi, K., Nisar, J., et al. (2016). Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO flower and pseudo-sphere: Nonylphenol ethoxylate degradation under UV and solar irradiation. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 678, 126-136. Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Alloys and Compounds2016ZnO particles (flower and pseudo sphere) were synthesized via precipitation route and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Particle size analyzer and UV–visible techniques. The photocatalytic activities (PCA) of ZnO flower (uncalcined) and pseudo-sphere (calcined) were evaluated by degrading nonylphenol ethoxylate-9 (NP9EO) under UV and solar irradiation. The process variables i.e., catalyst dose, calcination temperature, H2O2 concentration, pH and UV/solar light exposure were investigated and under optimum conditions of process variables, paper, textile and leather industries effluents were also treated. Calcination at high temperature affected the morphology of ZnO particles. Both ZnO flower and pseudo-sphere degraded NP9EO and pollutants in industrial wastewater efficiently under both UV and solar irradiation. Maximum NP9EO degradation was achieved at 2.5 g/L catalyst dose, high calcination temperature, 4% H2O2 concentration, 6 pH, 110 UV exposure and 12 h solar light exposure. Results reveal that ZnO is efficient photo-catalyst and could be used under solar irradiation for photocatalytic application by tuning the band gap.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838816308830APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4;104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishTertiary ozonation of industrial wastewater for the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA): A full-scale case study.Bertanza, G., Papa, M., Pedrazzani, R., Repice, C., & Dal Grande, M. (2013). Tertiary ozonation of industrial wastewater for the removal of estrogenic compounds (NP and BPA): A full-scale case study. Water Science and Technology , 68(3), 567-574. Anti-pollution systemsWater Science and Technology2013Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are considered to be a major source for the release in the aquatic environment of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Ozone has proved to be a suitable solution for polishing secondary domestic effluents. In this work, the performance of a fullscale ozonation plant was investigated in order to assess the removal efficiency of four target EDCs: nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate and bisphenol A. The studied system was the tertiary treatment stage of a municipal WWTP which receives an important industrial (textile) load. Chemical analyses showed that the considered substances occurred with a significant variability, typical of real wastewaters; based on this, ozonation performance was carefully evaluated and it appeared to be negatively affected by flow-rate increase (during rainy days, with consequent contact time reduction). Moreover, EDCs' measured removal efficiency was lower than what could be predicted based on literature data, because of the relatively high residual content of biorefractory compounds still present after biological treatment.https://iris.unibs.it/handle/11379/280312?mode=full.209#.Wjfr-N_iaM9APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 68412-54-4; 9016-45-9; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishBio-based degradation of emerging endocrine-disrupting and dye-based pollutants using cross-linked enzyme aggregates.Bilal, M., Asgher, M., Iqbal, H. M. N., Hu, H., & Zhang, X. (2017). Bio-based degradation of emerging endocrine-disrupting and dye-based pollutants using cross-linked enzyme aggregates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(8), 7035-7041. Anti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2017In this study, manganese peroxidase (MnP) from an indigenous white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was insolubilized in the form of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) using various aggregating agents, i.e., acetone, ammonium sulfate, ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol, followed by glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The precipitant type, MnP, and GA concentrations affected the CLEAs activity recovery and aggregation yield. Among precipitants used, acetone appeared to be the most efficient aggregation agent, providing the highest activity recovery and aggregation yield of 31.26 and 73.46%, respectively. Optimal cross-linking was noticed using 2.0% (v/v) GA and 8:1 (v/v) MnP to GA ratio at 3.0 h cross-linking time under continuous agitation at 4 °C. The highest recovered activity and aggregation yield were determined to be 47.57 and 81.26%, respectively. The MnP-CLEAs, thus synthesized, were tested to investigate their bio-catalytic capacity for removing two known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), e.g., nonylphenol and triclosan in a packed bed reactor system. The insolubilized MnP efficiently catalyzed the biodegradation of both EDCs, transforming over 80% in the presence of MnP-based system. A maximal of 100% decolorization was recorded for Sitara textile (SIT-based) effluent, followed by 95.5% for Crescent textile (CRT-based) effluent, 88.0% for K&N textile (KIT-based) effluent, and 84.2% for Nishat textile (NIT-based) effluent.http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/28092004APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishCharacterization of 4-nonylphenol-degrading bacterial consortium obtained from a textile wastewater pretreatment plant.Di Gioia, D., Salvadori, L., Zanaroli, G., Coppini, E., Fava, F., & Barberio, C. (2008). Characterization of 4-nonylphenol-degrading bacterial consortium obtained from a textile wastewater pretreatment plant. Archives of Microbiology , 190(6), 673-683. Anti-pollution systemsArchives of Microbiology20084-Nonylphenol (4-NP) isomers are toxic and recalcitrant compounds often resulting, together with short-chain ethoxylated nonylphenol (NPnEO, where n is the number of ethylene oxide units), from NPnEO biodegradation in conventional activated sludge plants. In this work, a microbial consortium, defined as Consortium A, capable of removing 100 mg/L of 4-NP with no accumulation of metabolites with aromatic moiety was isolated from textile wastewaters after enrichment with 4-NP. The consortium showed remarkable degradation activities toward several short-chain NPnEO congeners. Culture-dependent techniques were used to isolate from the consortium twenty-six strains assigned to seven different amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis groups. Two- and three-member cocultures were prepared with the strains showing highest 4-NP-degrading capabilities, but neither the single strains nor the cocultures were as efficient in 4-NP degradation as Consortium A. FISH was used to characterize the microbial composition of Consortium A: it evidenced a strong occurrence of Proteobacteria and, in particular, of Gammaproteobacteria along with a relevant stability of the culture. Therefore, the isolated consortium has the potential of being used in the development of a biotechnological process for the tertiary treatment of effluents of activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO-contaminated wastewaters.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18830582APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishNonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation in aqueous waste by the use of batch and continuous biofilm bioreactors. Di Gioia, D., Sciubba, L., Bertin, L., Barberio, C., Salvadori, L., Frassinetti, S., et al. (2009). Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation in aqueous waste by the use of batch and continuous biofilm bioreactors. Water Research , 43(12), 2977-2988. Anti-pollution systemsWater Research2009An aerobic bacterial consortium (Consortium A) was recently obtained from textile wastewater and was capable of degrading 4-nonylphenol and nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the treatment of effluents from activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO contaminated wastewater, the capability of Consortium A of biodegrading an industrial mixture of NPnEOs in the physiological condition of immobilized cells was investigated. Two identically configured packed bed reactors were developed by immobilizing the consortium on silica beads or granular activated carbon. Both reactors were tested in batch and continuous mode by feeding them with water supplemented with NPnEOs. The two reactors were monitored through chemical, microbiological and molecular integrated methodology. Active biofilms were generated on both immobilization supports. Both reactors displayed comparable NPnEO mineralization under batch and continuous conditions. FISH analyses evidenced that the biofilms evolved with time by changing the reactor operation mode and the organic load. Taken together, the data collected in this study provide a preliminary strong indication on the feasibility of Consortium A-based biofilm technology for the decontamination of NPnEO containing effluents.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135409002462APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishDistribution and removal of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol from textile wastewater-A comparison of a cotton and a synthetic fiber factory in Vietnam.Ho, H., & Watanabe, T. (2017). Distribution and removal of nonylphenol ethoxylates and nonylphenol from textile wastewater-A comparison of a cotton and a synthetic fiber factory in Vietnam. Water (Switzerland), 9(6) Anti-pollution systemsWater2017The textile industry is a significant source of nonyphenol and their ethoxylates, which are
suggested to be responsible for endocrine disruption in wildlife and humans. This study is a
comparison of two conventional wastewater treatment processes in a cotton and a synthetic fiber
factory in Vietnam, with regard to the distribution and removal of nonyphenol ethoxylates and
nonyphenol throughout each process. Diverse trends in the distribution of nonyphenol ethoxylates
in wastewater from factories, distinguished by their raw materials, could be revealed. Primary
coagulation might not perfectly facilitate nitrification in the secondary activated sludge process
regarding pH. Nevertheless, satisfactory removals were achieved during coagulation and activated
sludge processes in both systems. The roles of long hydraulic retention times (21 and 16 h,
respectively), low organic loadings (0.1 and 0.2 gCOD/gMLVSS.day, respectively), extended solids
retention times (61 and 66 days, respectively), and mixed liquor suspended solids of greater than
2000 mg/L have been demonstrated. The findings provide evidence and a better understanding of
nonyphenol ethoxylate and nonyphenol removal efficacy as well as influencing factors in
Vietnamese textile wastewater treatment. The results are beneficial for the textile industry in
Vietnam regarding investment decisions for wastewater treatment.
http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/9/6/386/pdf-vor
APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2 (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishRemoval of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water using textile-related wastes. I removal of 4-nonylphenol by microporous carbons prepared from cotton waste. Iwasaki, S., Fukuhara, T., Yoshimura, Y., Sakaguchi, R., Shibutani, Y., & Abe, I. (2001). Removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water using textile-related wastes. I removal of 4-nonylphenol by microporous carbons prepared from cotton waste. Sen'i Gakkaishi, 57(12), 359-363. Anti-pollution systemsSen'i Gakkaishi2001The textile industry is a significant source of nonyphenol and their ethoxylates, which are
suggested to be responsible for endocrine disruption in wildlife and humans. This study is a
comparison of two conventional wastewater treatment processes in a cotton and a synthetic fiber
factory in Vietnam, with regard to the distribution and removal of nonyphenol ethoxylates and
nonyphenol throughout each process. Diverse trends in the distribution of nonyphenol ethoxylates
in wastewater from factories, distinguished by their raw materials, could be revealed. Primary
coagulation might not perfectly facilitate nitrification in the secondary activated sludge process
regarding pH. Nevertheless, satisfactory removals were achieved during coagulation and activated
sludge processes in both systems. The roles of long hydraulic retention times (21 and 16 h,
respectively), low organic loadings (0.1 and 0.2 gCOD/gMLVSS.day, respectively), extended solids
retention times (61 and 66 days, respectively), and mixed liquor suspended solids of greater than
2000 mg/L have been demonstrated. The findings provide evidence and a better understanding of
nonyphenol ethoxylate and nonyphenol removal efficacy as well as influencing factors in
Vietnamese textile wastewater treatment. The results are beneficial for the textile industry in
Vietnam regarding investment decisions for wastewater treatment.
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/fiber/57/12/57_12_359/_articleAPEOs(4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishRemoval of wool wax, nonylphenol ethoxylates and pesticide residues from wool scour effluent. Jones, F. W., & Westmoreland, D. J. (1999). Removal of wool wax, nonylphenol ethoxylates and pesticide residues from wool scour effluent. Water Research , 33(8), 1775-1780. Anti-pollution systemsWater Research1999The aqueous scouring of raw wool produces a highly polluting effluent that primarily contains emulsified wool wax, together with high levels of nonionic detergents and trace levels of various agricultural pesticides. The SIROLAN CF chemical flocculation process transferred over 95% of the wool wax and detergent and greater than 98% of the pesticide residues from the wastewater stream to a spadeable sludge that was used as a starting material to produce a high quality compost. During the composting process the nonionic detergents and organophosphorus pesticide residues were degraded to below detectable levels while the pyrethroid pesticides, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin, together with the organochlorine pesticide, lindane were degraded to below 15% of their initial levels.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135498003996APEOs(NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 9016-45-9; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishNonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation by means of electrocoagulation and electrochemical fenton. Martins, A. F., Wilde, M. L., Vasconcelos, T. G., & Henriques, D. M. (2006). Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation by means of electrocoagulation and electrochemical fenton. Separation and Purification Technology, 50(2), 249-255. Anti-pollution systemsSeparation and Purification Technology2006This study investigated the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (9 ethylene oxide unities, NP9EO) in aqueous solution and textile wastewater by electrocoagulation (iron and aluminum electrodes) and electrochemical Fenton. The studied processes had as parameters NP9EO concentration (measured by HPLC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), integrated absorbance (200–800 nm) and hydrogen peroxide concentration (H2O2). First, it was determined the NP9EO concentration in textile wastewater by means of a modified procedure based on the extraction of surfactants. A factorial design 24 was employed to optimize the experimental conditions for NP9EO degradation in aqueous solution by electrocoagulation, through the following variables: NP9EO concentration, applied current, temperature and electrode material. The use of aluminum electrodes brought the most significant effects. The best performance was achieved by experiments using 20 mg L−1 aqueous NP9EO, 1.5 A and aluminum electrodes (around 95% removal in 30 min). The best experimental conditions achieved using factorial design were applied to textile wastewater treatment. The electrocoagulation using Al-electrodes allowed the NP9EO degradation and COD reduction of 95 and 50%, respectively, in only 15 min treatment. In order to enhance the aqueous NP9EO degradation obtained by electrocoagulation with iron electrodes, electrochemical Fenton was also performed and 95% NP9EO removal was achieved in 5 min (aqueous solution) and 10 min (wastewater) treatment, respectively. Besides the organic load removal (COD reduction) having not surpassed 55% in both processes, the total NP9EO removal of the textile wastewater was equally efficient by both aqueous solution and textile wastewater treatment (causing almost total degradation).http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383586605003886APEOs(NP9EO): 9016-45-9; (NPEO:) 127087-87-0; 26027-38-3; 37205-87-1; 68412-54-4; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
English Purification and characterization of a nonylphenol (NP)-degrading enzyme from B acillus cereus . Frankland.Yang, G., Zhang, Y., & Bai, Y. (2011). Purification and characterization of a nonylphenol (NP)-degrading enzyme from Bacillus cereus. Frankland. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering , 19(4), 644-648. Anti-pollution systemsChinese Journal of Chemical Engineering2011An extracellular NP-degrading enzyme secreted by Bacillus cereus. Frankland was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, Phenyl-Sepharose hydrophobic-interaction chromatography and DEAE anion-exchange chromatography. On SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, the purified enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 58.3 kDa. The depolymerzation of subunits was accompanied with the loss of NP-degrading enzyme activity, and removing denaturing factors by dialysis could restore the dimer structure and enzymatic activity. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of 5.5 and an optimal temperature of 60 °C, and was the most active at pH 6.0. The enzymatic activity was stable at pH 4-8 and inhibited by Cu2+. Ten N-terminal amino acids were determined to be ASVNSIKIGY, demonstrating that the purified enzyme was a novel one. The hydrolysis pattern of the purified enzyme indicated that the NP-degrading enzyme was an endo NP-degrading enzyme. The extraordinary thermo-stability provided the enzyme with a good prospect to be used as a new tool for clean-production process for textile industry.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1004954111600359APEOs(NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishUltimate biodegradation of alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and their biodegradation intermediatesStaples, C. A., Naylor, C. G., Williams, J. B., Gledhill, W. E. (2001). Ultimate biodegradation of alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants and their biodegradation intermediates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20(11), 2450-2455.Anti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry2001The ultimate biodegradation of the commercial products nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE9), octylphenol ethoxylates (OPE9), and their biodegradation intermediates, NPE1.5, OPE1.5, NP, and OP, was measured using conventional methods. The extent of biodegradation was also determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of metabolites and measurement of dissolved organic carbon. Optimized pseudo–first order degradation rate constants and half-lives were calculated from these data and from previously published data, using Larson's equation for surfactant degradation kinetics. Ultimate aerobic biodegradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates and their biodegradation intermediates has now been examined using acclimated wastewater treatment plant sludge as the microbial seed, household wastewater treatment systems, and unacclimated fresh water, seawater, and soil. Ultimate biodegradation half-lives ranged from about one to four weeks and provide definitive evidence for the extensive biodegradability of alkyphenol ethoxylates (APE) surfactants and their metabolites and their lack of persistence in the environment.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.5620201108/abstractAPEOs104-40-5
1173019-62-9
25154-52-3
90481-04-2
84852-15-3
127087-87-0
26027-38-3
37205-87-1
68412-54-4
9016-45-9
104-35-8
20427-84-3
140-66-9
1806-26-4
27193-28-8
68987-90-6
9036-19-5
2315-61-9
2315-67-5
EnglishDegradation of octylphenol and nonylphenol by ozone - Part I: Direct reactionNing, B., Graham, N.J.D., Zhang, Y.(2007). Degradation of octylphenol and nonylphenol by ozone - Part I: Direct reaction. Chemosphere. 68(6), 1163-1172.Anti-pollution systemsChemosphere2007This aqueous reaction between ozone and two alkylphenols (APs), namely octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP), has been investigated. Both compounds are important endocrine disrupting chemicals, which arise from the biodegradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates and are often found at relatively high concentrations in wastewater effluents. In this paper the results of an experimental study are presented which provide values for the reaction rate constants between molecular ozone and undissociated OP and NP, and overall reaction rate constants for the degradation of the two APs at pH values in the range of 7-9. The kinetic rate constants for OP and NP degradation by molecular ozone were 4.33(±0.18) × 104 and 3.90(±0.10) × 104 M-1 s-1, and the reaction stoichiometry was similar in both cases and equal to approximately 1.3:1 ([O3]:[AP]). The overall second order reaction rate constants for the two APs increased significantly with increasing pH, which is believed to be mainly due to the increasing influence of indirect radical reaction with increasing pH; this aspect is considered in more detail in a companion paper. A preliminary investigation of the reaction mechanism suggests that an initial product of ozonation is hydroxyl-alkyl phenol. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653507001506?via%3Dihub APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8 (NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishDegradation of octylphenol and nonylphenol by ozone - Part II: Indirect reactionNing, B., Graham, N.J.D., Zhang, Y.(2007). Degradation of octylphenol and nonylphenol by ozone - Part II: Indirect reaction. Chemosphere. 68(6), 1163-1172.Anti-pollution systemsChemosphere2007The indirect reaction of octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) with hydroxyl radicals (OH) during ozonation was investigated at pH values ranging from 6 to 9. A parameter Rct, representing the ratio of the OH-exposure to the ozone-exposure, was measured using a method involving a low concentration of p-chlorobenzoic acid as a OH-probe compound during the ozonation. By assuming that Rct is a constant value at a given pH, the second order rate constants of the alkylphenol reaction with hydroxyl radicals were determined as 1.4(±0.2) × 1010 and 1.1(±0.2) × 1010 M−1 s−1 for OP and NP, respectively. The proportions of each alkylphenol degraded by direct molecular ozone reaction and indirect hydroxyl radical reaction were predicted at different pH values. The contribution of indirect OH reactions with each AP was found to represent over 50% of the total degradation for pH ≈ 7, and the contribution increases substantially with pH > 7.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653507001518?via%3Dihub APEOs(OP): 140-66-9; 1806-26-4; 27193-28-8 (NP:) 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2; 104-35-8; 20427-84-3
EnglishPhotocatalytic degradation of 4-tert-octylphenol in a spiral photoreactor systemWu, Y., Yuan, H., Jiang, X., Wei, G., Li, C.Email Author, Dong, W. (2012). Photocatalytic degradation of 4-tert-octylphenol in a spiral photoreactor system. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China). 24(9), 1679-1685.Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Environmental Sciences (China)2012A spiral photoreactor system (SPS) was developed for the degradation of 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) in aqueous phase. 4-t-OP was previously considered as a endocrine disrupting compound frequently present in water. The direct photodegradation reaction caused by the SPS was found to accord with the characteristic of apparent first-order reaction with reaction rate constant k = 4.8 × 10-2 min-1. However, the direct photodegradation reaction could not make the 4-t-OP mineralized. The photodegradation efficiency increased from 88% to 91.2% in 45 min irradiation period after the internal surface of SPS was sintered with TiO2 thin film as catalyst. Catalyst concentration, number of catalyst coating layers and initial concentration of 4-t-OP were proven to be the factors affecting the photocatalytic degradation performance of the SPS on aqueous 4-t-OP. The degradation mechanism was investigated and the byproducts were analyzed using total organic carbon analyzer (TOC) and LC-MS. The possible chemical structures of the products were suggested. SPS with single layer of TiO2 prepared by sintering 13.6% of TiO2 precursor was proven to be more efficient than most of previous systems for removal of 4-t-OP from aqueous phase. 28.3% of the 4-t-OP was mineralized in 45 min according to the decreased amount of TOC value. © 2012 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074211609959?via%3DihubAPEOs(4-t-OP): 140-66-9
EnglishDegradation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan following biosolids addition to soil under laboratory conditionsLangdon, K.A., Warne, M.S.J., Smernik, R.J., Shareef, A., Kookana, R.S. (2011). Degradation of 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan following biosolids addition to soil under laboratory conditions. Chemosphere. 84(11), 1556-1562Anti-pollution systemsChemosphere2011Land application of biosolids is common practice in many countries, however, there are some potential risks associated with the presence of contaminants within the biosolids. This laboratory study examined the degradation of four commonly found organic compounds, 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, and triclosan, in soil following the addition of two biosolids over 32. weeks. The pattern of degradation was assessed to determine if it followed a standard first-order decay model or if a biphasic model with a degrading and a recalcitrant fraction better described the data. The time taken for the initial concentrations to decrease by 50% (DT50), based on a first-order model, was 12-25. d for 4-nonylphenol, 10-14. d for 4-t-octylphenol, 18-102. d for bisphenol A, and 73-301. d for triclosan. For 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan, the biphasic model fitted the degradation data better than the first-order model, indicating the presence of a degrading fraction and a non-degrading recalcitrant fraction. The recalcitrant fraction for these three compounds at the completion of the 32. week experiment was 17-21%, 24-42%, and 30-51% of the initial concentrations, respectively. For 4-t-octylphenol, the first-order model was sufficient in explaining the degradation data, indicating that no recalcitrant fraction was present. This study showed that biphasic degradation occurred for some organic compounds in biosolids amended soil and that the use of standard first-order degradation models may underestimate the persistence of some organic compounds following land application of biosolids. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653511006230?via%3DihubAPEOs(4-t-OP): 140-66-9; (4-NP): 104-40-5; 1173019-62-9; 25154-52-3; 84852-15-3; 90481-04-2
EnglishDetermination of aromatic amines in textile after bromination, by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection.Dados, A. E., Stalikas, C. D., & Pilidis, G. A. (2004). Determination of aromatic amines in textile after bromination, by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. Chromatographia, 59(5-6), 335-341. Analytical methodsChromatographia,2004A new analytical method is developed for the improved determination of banned aromatic amines in textiles based on the bromination of the aromatic ring system to yield the corresponding bromo derivatives. The derivatization method is very easy to perform and the derivatives can easily extract and separate with gas chromatography. Due to the introduction of the electron withdrawing bromo substituents sensitive detection with very low limits of detection using an electron capture detector is possible. The method was optimized and used for the analysis of textile with quantitative recoveries from spiked samples.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1365%2Fs10337-003-0156-x?LI=trueAmines Associated with Azo dyes95-69-2; 137-17-7; 106-47-8; 101-14-4; 97-56-3; 838-88-0; 95-53-4; 101-80-4; 101-77-9; 139-65-1; 99-55-8; 120-71-8; 95-80-7; 91-59-8; 92-67-1; 91-94-1; 119-90-4; 92-87-5; 615-05-4; 119-93-7
EnglishEvaluation of uncertainty for detecting the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products by GC-MS.Fu, K. -., Li, Z. -., Yang, L. -., Min, J., & Ye, H. -. (2006). Evaluation of uncertainty for detecting the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products by GC-MS. Journal of Donghua University (English Edition) , 23(3), 14-18. Analytical methodsournal of Donghua University (English Edition)2006The article evaluated the uncertainty of the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products in terms of GB/T17592.1-1998 Textiles-test Method of Banned Azo Colourants-gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method, analyzed and quantified the uncertainty components which affected the measurement results. Through calculation, the uncertainty of the sample mainly came from C0 standard uncertainty, weighing, uncertainty of volume, effect on the recovery rate of sample during the course of extraction and purification and uncertainty from the random effect during the course of measurement. It was obtained that the expanded uncertainties of the content of 2-naphthylamine, benzidine and 2,4-diaminotoluene with higher frequency in 24 kinds of forbidden aromatic amines were respectively 2.128, 2.302 and 4.778 mg/kg.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293348333_Evaluation_of_uncertainty_for_detecting_the_content_of_banned_aromatic_amines_in_textile_products_by_GC-MSAmines Associated with Azo dyes91-58-8, 92-87-5, 95-80-7
EnglishApplication of C18-functional magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of aromatic amines from human urine.Jiang, C., Sun, Y., Yu, X., Gao, Y., Zhang, L., Wang, Y., et al. (2014). Application of C18-functional magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of aromatic amines from human urine. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 947-948, 49-56. Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences2014In this paper, a novel method using C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C18-UMS NPs) as adsorbents was developed for rapid extraction and enrichment of aromatic amines from urine. C18-UMS NPs were prepared by chemical coprecipitation, silanization and alkylation. The aromatic amines can be adsorbed on C18-UMS NPs and isolated easily from the matrix with an external magnetic field. After desorption with acetonitrile, the aromatic amines were determined by ultra fast liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, such as pH value of sample solution, amount of C18-UMS NPs, extraction time, type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized. The analytical performances of the present method were also evaluated. The limits ofdetection for 1-aminonaphthalene, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-aminophenylthioether were 1.3, 0.88, 1.1 and 1.1ngmL-1, respectively. The results showed that the present method was simple, highly efficient and rapid for the extraction and enrichment of aromatic amines from urine. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570023213006958?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes134-32-7, 92-67-1 , 101-77-9 , 139-65-1
EnglishRapid separation and sensitive determination of banned aromatic amines with plastic microchip electrophoresisLi, R., Wang, L., Gao, X., Du, G., Zhai, H., Wang, X., et al. (2013). Rapid separation and sensitive determination of banned aromatic amines with plastic microchip electrophoresis. Journal of Hazardous Materials , 248-249(1), 268-275. Analytical methodsJournal of Hazardous Materials2013Rapid analysis of trace amount of aromatic amines in environmental samples and daily necessities has attracted considerable attentions because some of them are strongly toxic and carcinogenic. In this study, fast and efficient electrophoretic separation and sensitive determination of 5 banned aromatic amines were explored for practical analysis using disposable plastic microchips combined with a low-cost laser-induced fluorescence detector. The effect of running buffer and its additive was systematically investigated. Under the selected condition, 5 fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled aromatic amines could be baseline separated within 90s by using a 10mmol/L borate buffer containing 2% (w/v) hydroxypropyl cellulose. Calibration curves of peak areas vs. concentrations were linear up to 40 or 120μmol/L for different analytes and limits of detection were in a range of 1-3nmol/L. Theoretical plate numbers of 6.8-8.5×105/m were readily achieved. The method exhibited good repeatability, relative standard deviations (n=5) of peak areas and migration times were no more than 4.6% and 0.9%, respectively. The established method was successfully applied in the quantitative analysis of these banned aromatic amines in real samples of waste water and textile, recoveries of added standards were 85-110%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030438941300023X?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes106-47-8; 95-53-4; 95-68-1 ; 101-77-9; 92-87-5
EnglishPrimary aromatic amine migration from polyamide kitchen utensils: Method development and product testing.McCall, E., Keegan, J., & Foley, B. (2012). Primary aromatic amine migration from polyamide kitchen utensils: Method development and product testing. Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 29(1), 149-160. Analytical methodsFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment2012A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the identification, quantification and confirmation of six primary aromatic amines (PAAs) was developed and validated to ISO 17025:2005. From a literature survey, 57 frequently used PAA compounds were identified and subsequently reduced to six–aniline, 4,4′-MDA, 3,3′-DMB, 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA and o-T–based on results from migration studies on a range of utensils. Low LOQs of between 0.075 and 0.496 µg l−1 were determined for the six analytes, thereby quantifying well below the legal limit of 10 µg kg−1 total PAAs. Furthermore, low measurement uncertainties were calculated for the analytical method, in the range of 3.15–3.20%. Mean recoveries were between 98% and 102% and spanned over ±12% at 95% CI. Following the analysis of 84 black polyamidekitchen utensils, the migration of PAAs detected was significant and is therefore of concern. The six analytes identified, quantified and confirmed in this survey could be utilised as possible markers for the identification of PAA migration, thereby improving the time and cost-efficiency of food control laboratories. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19440049.2011.615031?scroll=top&needAccess=trueAmines Associated with Azo dyes823-40-5, 92-87-5, 95-80-7, 90-04-0, 62-53-3, 106-50-3, 95-53-4, 119-93-7, 101-80-4, 95-68-1, 106-47-8, 101-77-9,
EnglishSpecific determination of 20 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.Mortensen, S. K., Trier, X. T., Foverskov, A., & Petersen, J. H. (2005). Specific determination of 20 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1091(1-2), 40-50. Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2005A multi-analyte method without any pre-treatment steps using reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was developed and applied for the determination of 20 primary aromatic amines (PAA) associated with polyurethane (PUR) products or azo-colours. The method was validated in-house for water and 3% acetic acid food simulants using spiked migrates from plastic laminates. Detection limits ranged from 0.27 to 3 μg amine/L food simulants, and RSD values of within-laboratory reproducibility at the 2 μg PAA/L level ranged from 3.9 to 19%. PAA migration from plastic laminates and black nylon cooking utensils were determined with the method, and high levels of 4,4′-methylenedianiline and aniline were found in migrates from about half of the tested cooking utensils. The method fulfils present legislative demands in the EU for screening and verification of PAA migration from food contact materials. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967305014366?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes106-50-3, 108-45-2, 823-40-5, 615-05-4, 95-80-7, 62-53-3, 90-04-0, 95-53-4, 92-87-5, 106-47-8, 101-80-4, 101-77-9, 87-62-7, 120-71-8, 95-68-1, 95-69-2, 119-93-7, 838-88-0, 137-17-7, 92-67-1
English Detection of azo dyes and aromatic amines in women undergarment. Nguyen, T., & Saleh, M. A. (2016). Detection of azo dyes and aromatic amines in women undergarment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering , 51(9), 744-753. Analytical methodsJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering2016Women are exposed to several chemical additives including azo dyes that exist in textile materials, which are a potential health hazard for consumers. Our objective was to analyze suspected carcinogenic azo dyes and their degradation aromatic amines in women underwear panties using a fast and simple method for quantification. Here, we evaluated 120 different samples of women underwear for their potential release of aromatic amines to the skin. Seventy-four samples yielded low level mixtures of aromatic amines; however eighteen samples were found to produce greater than 200 mg/kg (ppm) of aromatic amines. Azo dyes in these 18 samples were extracted from the fabrics and analyzed by reverse phase thin layer chromatography in tandem with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven azo dyes were identified based on their mass spectral data and the chemical structure of the aromatic amine produced from these samples. We demonstrate that planar chromatography and mass spectrometry can be really helpful in confirming the identity of the azo dyes, offering highly relevant molecular information of the responsible compounds in the fabrics. With the growing concern about the consumer goods, analysis of aromatic amines in garments has become a highly important issue. © 2016, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10934529.2016.1170446Amines Associated with Azo dyes95-53-4, 95-68-1, 90-04-0, 106-47-8, 106-50-3, 120-71-8, 137-17-7, 95-80-7, 615-05-4, 100-10-7, 91-59-8, 99-55-8, 92-67-1, 60-09-3, 101-80-4, 92-87-5, 101-77-9, 97-56-3, 838-88-0, 119-93-7, 139-65-1, 91-94-1, 101-14-4, 119-90-4
EnglishDevelopment of a rapid screening method to determine primary aromatic amines in kitchen utensils using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS).Paseiro-Cerrato, R., Noonan, G. O., & Begley, T. H. (2014). Development of a rapid screening method to determine primary aromatic amines in kitchen utensils using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment , 31(3), 537-545. Analytical methodsFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment2014Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are a group of substances with undesirable health effects, that are used in a variety of commercial products. Several recent studies, using a number of screening and confirmatory methods, have reported the migration of PAAs from some kitchen utensils into acetic acid 3% (w/v). Many of these methods require significant sample preparation, therefore the aim of this work was to determine if direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) could be utilised as a rapid screening tool for the determination of PAAs in kitchen utensils. DART-MS results from direct analysis of the utensil have been compared with results of PAA migration by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The UPLC-MS/MS method had excellent linearity, appropriate sensitivity (LOD ≤ 1.5 μg L-1; LOQ ≤ 4.5 μg L-1), repeatability from 2.4 to 13.2% and acceptable recoveries. DART-MS results were in good agreement with UPLC-MS/MS data, with 100% of non-compliant (PAA positive) samples successfully identified by DART-MS.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19440049.2013.867366Amines Associated with Azo dyes62-53-3, 6358-64-1, 101-80-4, 95-53-4, 119-93-7, 134-32-7, 823-40-5, 87-62-7, 92-87-5, 108-45-2, 92-67-1, 95-80-7, 101-77-9
EnglishOptimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of aromatic amines in water and in polyamide spoonsRubio, L., Sanllorente, S., Sarabia, L. A., & Ortiz, M. C. (2014). Optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of aromatic amines in water and in polyamide spoons. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 133, 121-135. Analytical methodsChemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems2014In this work, a headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) method for trace determination of primary aromatic amines was developed. The following analytes were investigated: aniline (A), 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (4,4'-MDA) and 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-TDA) using 3-chloro-4-fluoroaniline (3C4FA) and 2-aminobiphenyl (2ABP) as internal standards. Prior to extraction the analytes were derivatized in the aqueous solution by diazotation and subsequent iodination. The derivatives were extracted by HS-SPME using a PDMS/DVB fiber and analyzed by GC/MS. A D-optimal design was used to study the parameters affecting the HS-SPME procedure and the derivatization step. Two experimental factors at two levels and one factor at three levels were considered: (i) reaction time, (ii) extraction temperature, and (iii) extraction time in the headspace. The interaction between the extraction temperature and extraction time was considered in the proposed model. The loadings in the sample mode estimated by a PARAFAC (parallel factor analysis) decomposition for each analyte were the response used in the design because they are proportional to the amount of analyte extracted. The optimum conditions for the best extraction of the analytes were achieved when the reaction time was 20. min, the extraction temperature was 50. °C and the extraction time was 25. min. The interaction was significant.A calibration based on a PARAFAC decomposition provided the following values of decision limit (CCα): 1.07μgL-1 for A, 1.23μgL-1 for 2,4-TDA and 0.83μgL-1 for 4,4'-MDA for a probability of false positive fixed at 5%. Also, the accuracy (trueness and precision) of the procedure was assessed. Furthermore, all the analytes were unequivocally identified.Finally, the method was applied to spiked water samples and polyamide cooking utensils (spoons). 3% (w/v) acetic acid in aqueous solution was used as food simulant for testing migration from polyamide kitchenware. Detectable levels of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and aniline were found in food simulant from some of the investigated cooking utensils. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169743914000215Amines Associated with Azo dyes62-53-3, 95-80-7, 101-77-9, 367-21-5, 90-41-5
EnglishAnalysis of primary aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in textile products and determination of their source colorantSugaya, N., Sato, Y., Takahashi, M., Sakurai, K., & Kawakami, T. (2017). Analysis of primary aromatic amines derived from azo colorants in textile products and determination of their source colorant. Yakugaku Zasshi , 137(1), 95-109. Analytical methodsYakugaku Zasshi2017Twenty-four primary aromatic amines (PAAs) derived from azo colorants, which are controlled by the Act on Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, aniline and 1,4-phenylendiamine were analyzed in 86 samples of 40 textile products by GC-MS. Even though these PAAs detected in the samples did not exceed the regulation value (30 μg/g), 14 kinds of PAAs were detected that exceeded the limit ofquantification. 4,4'-Methylenedianiline, in amounts that exceeded the limit of quantification, was detected in 20 textile samples containing synthesis fiber (16 samples made from polyurethane, two samples made from polyester, and two samples made from acryl); however, it was not detected in natural fiber textilesamples. Of these samples, 4,4'-methylenedianiline was detected in 16 out of 19 samples (84%) made from polyurethane fiber. This suggests that 4,4'-methylenedianiline is formed from polyurethane. The origin of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine was investigated in three samples releasing more than 3 μg/g (3.9-15 μg/g) of3,3'-dichlorobenzidine using atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe-mass spectrometry and Pigment Orange 13 was identified as the orange colorant in the textile printing parts. This result suggests that 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine detected in these three samples was generated by the reduction of Pigment Orange 13. © 2017 The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/28049902Amines Associated with Azo dyes62-53-3, 106-50-3, 101-77-9, 91-94-1, 55-20-32-7
EnglishDetermination of aromatic amines from textiles using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.Yang, L., Yiwei, W., Caiying, L., & Yan, Z. (2013). Determination of aromatic amines from textiles using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Journal of Separation Science , 36(5), 947-952. Analytical methodsJournal of Separation Science2013A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure coupled with GC-MS is described for preconcentration and determination of banned aromatic amines fromtextile samples. Experimental conditions affecting the microextraction procedure were optimized. A mixture of 30 μL chlorobenzene (extraction solvent) and 800 μL ACN (disperser solvent), 5 min extraction time, and 5 mL aqueous sample volume were chosen for the best extraction efficiency by the proposed procedure. Satisfactory linearity (with correlation coefficients >0.9962) and repeatability (<9.78%) were obtained for all 20 aromatic amines; detection limits attained were much lower than the standardized liquid-liquid method. The proposed method has advantages of being quicker and easier to operate, and lower consumption of organic solvent. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jssc.201200645/fullAmines Associated with Azo dyes92–67–1, 92–87–5, 95–69–2, 91–59–8, 106–47–8, 101–77–9, 91–94–1, 119–90–4, 119–93–7, 838–88–0, 120–71–8, 101–14–4, 101–80–4, 139–65–1, 95–53–4, 137–17–7, 90–04–0, 95–68–1, 87–62–7, 60–09-3
EnglishDesorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for detection of 24 carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles.Yang, S., Han, J., Huan, Y., Cui, Y., Zhang, X., Chen, H., et al. (2009). Desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for detection of 24 carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles. Analytical Chemistry, 81(15), 6070-6079. Analytical methodsAnalytical Chemistry2009Because of its significant advantages including minimal sample pretreatment, easy ambient sample manipulation, high sensitivity, high specificity, and high throughput, desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DESI-MSn) has been successfully applied for the fast nondestructive detection of carcinogenic aromatic amines on various textile samples. Under the optimized experimental conditions, 24 aromatic amines were directly detected as protonated molecules by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (49:49: 2, v/v/v) as the electrospray liquid. The average analysis time for each sample was less than 30 s, making DESI-MS a high-throughput screening tool for textile examination. The false positive signals (having the same m/ z values as those from the aromatic amines) could be excluded by using tandem DESI mass spectrometry. The detection limit for most of the aromatic amines in this study was on the order of low femtograms per squared millimeter by utilizing the characteristic fragments from DESI-MS/MS experiments. The typical RSD values for this method were found to be 5%-10% for six measurements (S/N = 3) of the same sample. These results show that DESI-MSn is reliable and the most sensitive analytical tool available for the rapid and nondestructive detection of carcinogenic aromatic amines on textile products. The technique has promising applications for inline quality monitoring in the textile industry. © 2009 American Chemical Society.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac900411rAmines Associated with Azo dyes95-53-4, 106-47-8, 120-71-8, 137-17-7, 95-69-2, 91-59-8, 90-04-0, 87-62-7, 95-68-1, 615-05-4, 101-54-2, 101-80-4, 92-87-5, 101-77-9, 838-88-0, 119-93-7, 139-65-1, 91-94-1, 101-14-4. 119-90-4, 99-55-8, 60-09-3, 97-56-3
English Determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometryYe, X., Peng, Y., Niu, Z., Gao, Y., Luo, X., & Zou, L. (2015). Determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry. Chinese Journal of Chromatography, 33 (4),377-382. Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Chromatography2015A method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS) was used to determine 24 free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles. The main factors influencing the method, including the extraction solvent, the extraction temperature and the extraction time, were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytes were extracted by dichloromethane for 10 min and loaded into a ZORBAX SB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 5 µm) with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% aqueous formic acid solution, and finally detected by LTQ/Orbitrap MS. The screening and quantitative analysis were carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion and the peak in extracted chromatogram with accurate mass respectively. The correlation coefficients (R2) were higher than 0.99. The recoveries were 87.8%-105.6% with the RSDs were 1.6%-3.4%. The limits of detection were 0.5-1 µg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 1.5-3 µg/kg. The proposed method was applied to 14 textile samples containing spandex. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane was determined in five samples and the contents were 0.21-25.6 mg/kg. The results indicate that the developed method is a simple, efficient, precise and reliable technique for the determination of free carcinogenic aromatic amines in textiles.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26292407Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishMonitoring exposure to 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) through the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement of adducts to hemoglobinBailey, E., Brooks, A. G., Farmer, P. B., & Street, B. (1993). Monitoring exposure to 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) through the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement of adducts to hemoglobin. Environmental Health Perspectives , 99, 175-177. Analytical methods Environmental Health Perspectives19934,4'-Methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) is widely used as a curing agent in the plastics industry. The determination of the covalently bound reaction products to hemoglobin (Hb) has been investigated as a biomonitoring method for occupational exposure to this potential human carcinogen. Initial studies using the 14C-ring-labeled MOCA showed that 24 hr after a single IP dosage to rats (3.74 mumole/kg), 0.08% of the administered dose was adducted to the Hb, and base hydrolysis liberated 38% of the bound radioactivity. The only product released on hydrolysis was the parent diamine. A specific and sensitive assay procedure using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed for determining the base-released MOCA adduct down to levels of 20 pmole/g Hb. This method has been used to establish a linear dose-response relationship in IP dosed rats between production of the adduct and dose of MOCA (3.74-44.94 mumole/kg). It is proposed to use analysis of the Hb adduct as a dosimeter for industrial workers exposed to MOCA.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1567037/Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
EnglishMethylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA): Towards a biological monitoring guidance value. Cocker, J., Nutley, B. P., & Wilson, H. K. (1996). Methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA): Towards a biological monitoring guidance value. Biomarkers , 1(3), 185-189. Analytical methodsBiomarkers1996We report the development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) and its labile conjugates in urine. The method has been in regular use for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to MbOCA for the past 11 years. Following the development of a biological monitoring strategy, and the introduction of a biological action level by the Health and Safety Commission in 1984, there has been a steady fall in the proportion of workers whose urinary results are above the action level. We conclude that, in the absence of reliable health-based data, a guidance value based on the use of the 90th percentile derived from monitoring a cross-section of the industry, can be used to interpret biological monitoring results. The measurement of urinary MbOCA is a practical non-invasive way of monitoring workers which can be useful in helping to control exposure.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13547509609079355Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
English Evidence that a ß-N-glucuronide of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) is a major urinary metabolite in man: Implications for biological monitoring. Cooker, J., Boobis, A. R., Wilson, H. K., & Gompertz, D. (1990). Evidence that a ß-N-glucuronide of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) is a major urinary metabolite in man: Implications for biological monitoring. British Journal of Industrial Medicine , 47(3), 154-161. Analytical methodsBritish Journal of Industrial Medicine1990Urine samples from workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MbOCA) contain a labile metabolite(s) that, on hydrolysis, yields the parent compound at concentrations two to three times those of free MbOCA. Evidence has now been obtained that the major labile metabolite is an N-glucuronide of MbOCA. The N-glucuronide of MbOCA was synthesised chemically, characterised by thermospray mass spectrometry, and found to have a pseudomolecular (M + 1) ion at m/z 443/445. MbOCA and [14C] uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid [( 14C]UDPGA) were incubated with liver microsomes from rats induced with polychlorinated biphenyls. The stoichiometry of the reaction product was about 1:1 (MbOCA:UDPGA). This product, the chemically synthesised glucuronide, and the labile urinary metabolite had identical chromatographic and hydrolytic (heat and beta-glucuronidase) properties. These studies show that the major labile conjugate of MbOCA in the urine of workers exposed to this compound is probably the mono N-glucuronide. In view of the lability of this compound and the fact that its concentration in urine is two to three times that of free MbOCA, it is essential that any strategy for the biological monitoring of exposed workers takes into account the N-glucuronide.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1035125/Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
English Effect of ionic liquid on the determination of aromatic amines as contaminants in hair dyes by liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection.Lizier, T. M., & Zanoni, M. V. B. (2012). Effect of ionic liquid on the determination of aromatic amines as contaminants in hair dyes by liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. Molecules, 17 (7), 7961-7979. Analytical methodsMolecules2012The room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonyl)imide BMIm[NTf₂] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-ichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthylamine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf₂] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf₂] 70:30 (v/v) as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min⁻¹, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L⁻¹ to 217 mg·L⁻¹, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L⁻¹ to 0.246 mg·L⁻¹ and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3) were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/17/7/7961Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-77-9, 106-47-8, 120-71-8, 119-93-7, 95-80-7, 121-87-9, 101-80-4, 62-53-3, 91-94-1, 92-87-5, 92-67-1, 119-90-4, 90-04-0, 95-53-4, 101-14-4, 91-59-8
EnglishSeparation of aromatic amines of MAK group, which are the reduction products of AZO dyes by partition HPLC chromatography.Pielesz, A., Baranowska, I., Swierczek, S., & Wlochowicz, A. (1999). Separation of aromatic amines of MAK group, which are the reduction products of AZO dyes by partition HPLC chromatography. Chemia Analityczna, 44 (3 B), 495-504. Analytical methodsChemia Analityczna1999HPLC chromatographic systems allowing the separation and the determination of aromatic amines of MAK group, whose presence in textile products is prohibited, have been worked out. 29 aromatic amines were investigated. The application of C18 columns and gradient of methanol-water [45 + 64 v/v for 12 min to 70 + 30 for 8 min and 80 + 20 v/v for 5 min to 85 + 15 for 10 min] with flow rate of 1 ml min-1 allowed to separate and determine 17 of tested amines such as: 1,3-phenyldiamine, 2,4-diaminotoluene, 1,4-phenyldiamine, aniline, 4,4′-diaminediphenyl ether, o-toluidine, p.-toluidine, 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane, 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, o-dianisidine, o-tolidin, anisole, 4-chloro-2-methylaniline, 2,4,6-trimethylaniline, 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine, diphenylamine, o-amino-azotoluene. Use of the mixture of methanol-water 53-47 v/v and flow rate 1.2 ml min-1 allows to determine simultaneously 1,2-phenyldiamine, 4,4′-thiodianiline, benzidine, 1-naphtylamine, m-toluidine, 4-methoxy-1,3-phenylenediamine sulfate, 4,4′-diamino-3,3′-dimethyldiphenylmethane, 4,4′-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline), 2,4,5-trimethylaniline. Measurements were performed with the use of DAD spectrophotometric detector and fluorescence detector. Moreover, the identification of analyzed aromatic amines in samples of the following dyes was carried out: direct orange G. direct red 4B, direct blue 2B, folan red G, D Brown 95, D Blue 1 and coloured yarn after reduction with artificial sweat.

Separation of aromatic amines of MAK group, which are the reduction products of AZO dyes by partition HPLC chromatography. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279550400_Separation_of_aromatic_amines_of_MAK_group_which_are_the_reduction_products_of_AZO_dyes_by_partition_HPLC_chromatography [accessed Dec 21 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279550400_Separation_of_aromatic_amines_of_MAK_group_which_are_the_reduction_products_of_AZO_dyes_by_partition_HPLC_chromatographyAmines Associated with Azo dyes108-45-2, 95-80-7, 106-50-3, 62-53-3, 101-80-4, 95-53-4, 106-49-0, 101-77-9, 99-55-8, 119-90-4, 119-93-7, 100-66-3, 95-69-2, 88-05-1, 91-94-1, 122-39-497-56-3, 139-65-1, 92-87-5, 134-32-7, 108-44-1, 123333-56-2, 838-88-0, 101-14-4, 137-17-7
EnglishBiomonitoring of arylamines and nitroarenes.Sabbioni, G., & Jones, C. R. (2002). Biomonitoring of arylamines and nitroarenes. Biomarkers, 7 (5), 347-421. Analytical methodsBiomarkers2002Arylamines and nitroarenes are very important intermediates in the industrial manufacture of dyes, pesticides and plastics, and are significant environmental pollutants. The metabolic steps of N-oxidation and nitroreduction to yield N-hydroxyarylamines are crucial for the toxic properties of arylamines and nitroarenes. Nitroarenes are reduced by microorganisms in the gut or by nitroreductases and aldehyde dehydrogenase in hepatocytes to nitrosoarenes and N-hydroxyarylamines. N-Hydroxyarylamines can be further metabolized to N-sulphonyloxyarylamines, N-acetoxyarylamines or N-hydroxyarylamine N-glucuronide. These highly reactive intermediates are responsible for the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of this class of compounds. N-Hydroxyarylamines can form adducts with DNA, tissue proteins, and the blood proteins albumin and haemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. DNA and protein adducts have been used to biomonitor humans exposed to such compounds. All these steps are dependent on enzymes, which are present in polymorphic forms. This article reviews the metabolism of arylamines and nitroarenes and the biomonitoring studies performed in animals and humans exposed to these substances.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13547500210147253Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishDetermination of primary aromatic amines using immobilized nanoparticles based surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy. Wu, T., Wang, H. -., Shen, B., Du, Y. -., Wang, X., Wang, Z. -., et al. (2016). Determination of primary aromatic amines using immobilized nanoparticles based surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy. Chinese Chemical Letters, 27 (5), 745-748. Analytical methodsChinese Chemical Letters2016Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are substances with toxicity and suspected human carcinogenicity. A facile method for highly sensitive detection of PAAs using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is reported. The immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the glycidyl methacrylate–ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) materials makes the substrate a closely packed but not aggregated Au NP arrays which provides a prominent SERS enhancement. Four PAAs with different substituent groups, namely, p-toluidine, p-nitroaniline, benzidine and 4,4-methylene-bis-(2-chloroaniline) have been successfully identified and quantified. High sensitivity and good linear relationship between SERS signals and concentrations of PAAs are obtained for all four PAAs.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001841716000802Amines Associated with Azo dyes106-49-0, 100-01-6, 91-95-2, 101-14-4
EnglishToxicity assessment of textile dyes via oxidative stress hypothesis for iraqi textile workers.Al-Mashhedy, L. A. M. (2013). Toxicity assessment of textile dyes via oxidative stress hypothesis for iraqi textile workers. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4(4), B577-B587. Toxicity International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences2013Textile dyes are the most important environment-polluting agents and particularly working environment, so the workers are vulnerable to many diseases, especially cancer, such as skin and lung cancer. Many of the workers are occupation exposed to dye, but little is known for their risk and chemical influence of the dyes on their health, for that the present study was taken up to assess the azo dyes toxicity, risk and knowledge about the health hazard of these dyes by determination of oxidant and antioxidant status of Iraqi textile workers in Hilla city. The mean age of 45 textile workers was 37±5.2 years compared with 40 person working in an office business aged 35±2.5 years. When enquired about whether dyes to affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they are not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body for that, the present study included evaluation of lipid peroxidation via determining of the main end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidant and Vitamin E and reduced glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT), as an antioxidant as well as assessment of Lipid profile(cholesterol, triglyceride TG, high-density lipoprotein HDL, low-density lipoprotein LDL and very lowdensity lipoprotein vLDL) beside the evaluation of liver enzyme activity (AST and ALT) rather than determination of thyroid hormone T4 and T3 in an attempt to estimate the effects of dyes on various tissues inside the body.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285991984_Toxicity_assessment_of_textile_dyes_via_oxidative_stress_hypothesis_for_Iraqi_textile_workersAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishEstrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes.Bazin, I., Ibn Hadj Hassine, A., Haj Hamouda, Y., Mnif, W., Bartegi, A., Lopez-Ferber, M., et al. (2012). Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of 23 commercial textile dyes. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 85, 131-136. ToxicityEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety2012The presence of dyes in wastewater effluent of textile industry is well documented. In contrast, the endocrine disrupting effects of these dyes and wastewater effluent have been poorly investigated. Herein, we studied twenty-three commercial dyes, usually used in the textile industry, and extracts of blue jean textilewastewater samples were evaluated for their agonistic and antagonistic estrogen activity. Total estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities were measured using the Yeast Estrogen Screen bioassay (YES) that evaluates estrogen receptor binding-dependent transcriptional and translational activities. The estrogenic potencies of the dyes and wastewater samples were evaluated by dose-response curves and compared to the dose-response curve of 17Β-estradiol (E2), the reference compound. The dose-dependent anti-estrogenic activities of the dyes and wastewater samples were normalized to the known antagonistic effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) on the induction of the lac Z reporter gene by E2. About half azo textile dyes have anti-estrogenic activity with the most active being Blue HFRL. Most azo dyes however have no or weak estrogenic activity. E2/dye or E2/waste water ER competitive binding assays show activity of Blue HFRL, benzopurpurine 4B, Everzol Navy Blue FBN, direct red 89 BNL 200% and waste water samples indicating a mechanism of action common to E2. Our results indicate that several textile dyes are potential endocrine disrupting agents. The presence of some of these dyes in textile industry wastewater may thus impact the aquatic ecosystem. © 2012 Elsevier http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651312002631?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes992-59-6
6473-13-8
10343-55-2
4399-55-7
12238-94-7
12238-49-2
12222-37-6
93912-64-2
93050-79-4
2580-78-1
17095-24-8
2481-94-9
89157-03-9
English Identification of non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern which can be cleaved from azo dyes used in clothing textiles.Brüschweiler, B. J., Küng, S., Bürgi, D., Muralt, L., & Nyfeler, E. (2014). Identification of non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern which can be cleaved from azo dyes used in clothing textiles. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology , 69(2), 263-272. ToxicityPharmacology2014Azo dyes in textiles may release aromatic amines after enzymatic cleavage by skin bacteria or after dermal absorption and metabolism in the human body. From the 896 azo dyes with known chemical structure in the available textile dyes database, 426 azo dyes (48%) can generate one or more of the 22 regulated aromatic amines in the European Union in Annex XVII of REACH. Another 470 azo dyes (52%) can be cleaved into exclusively non-regulated aromatic amines. In this study, a search for publicly available toxicity data on non-regulated aromatic amines was performed. For a considerable percentage of non-regulated aromatic amines, the toxicity database was found to be insufficient or non-existent. 62 non-regulated aromatic amines with available toxicity data were prioritized by expert judgment with objective criteria according to their potential for carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and/or skin sensitization. To investigate the occurrence of azo dye cleavage products, 153 random samples of clothing textiles were taken from Swiss retail outlets and analyzed for 22 high priority non-regulated aromatic amines of toxicological concern. Eight of these 22 non-regulated aromatic amines of concern could be detected in 17% of the textile samples. In 9% of the samples, one or more of the aromatic amines of concern could be detected in concentrations >30. mg/kg, in 8% of the samples between 5 and 30. mg/kg. The highest measured concentration was 622. mg/kg textile. There is an obvious need to assess consumer health risks for these non-regulated aromatic amines and to fill this gap in the regulation of clothing textiles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230014000749?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes87-62-7, 95-68-1, 4787-93-3, 3761-53-3, 12167-45-2, 5858-37-7, 6226-81-9, 52749-23-2, 6369-36-4, 6404-53-1, 3118-97-6, 6407-78-9, 95-76-1, 83249-52-9, 97-52-9, 6373-90-6, 42357-98-2, 99-57-0, 6487-04-3, 13011-62-6, 3618-62-0, 99-59-2, 6471-49-4, 100-01-6 , 1064-48-8, 85223-29-6; 99576-15-5, 70210-25-2; 84195-79-9, 85631-85-2, 6473-04-7, 6487-05-4, 6487-04-3, 2581-69-3, 26311-09-1, 730-40-5, 31482-56-1, 19800-42-1, 61968-38-5; 68391-42-4, 69472-19-1, 15958-27-7, 40690-89-9, 70210-10-5, 2872-52-8, 3769-58-2, 3179-89-3, 2734-52-3, 1533-74-0; 1533-76-2, 29765-00-2, 61355-92-8; 68248-10-2, 1718-34-9; 2243-76-7, 87606-56-2, 121-66-4, 12222-97-8, 12223-01-7, 68516-81-4, 15141-18-1; 61951-51-7, 70865-21-3, 121-88-0, 6253-14-1, 123-30-8, 6507-77-3, 6253-10-7, 19800-42-1, 72828-67-2, 1747-60-0, 13486-43-6, 5131-58-8, 13011-68-2, 82640-07-1; 83863-34-7, 6285-57-0, 58051-98-2, 68133-69-7, 16586-42-8, 14346-19-1, 61968-29-4, 105076-77-5, 25376-45-8, 3176-79-2, 88-63-1, 6473-04-7, 95-76-1, 83249-52-9, 99-98-9, 29767-87-1, 6373-90-6, 60-11-7, 2869-83-2, 83930-05-6, 101-54-2, 587-98-4, 2581-69-3, 106-50-3, 5858-51-5, 68966-90-5, 79135-92-5, 51988-26-2, 68959-01-3, 8003-69-8, 6428-31-5; 7518-68-5, 25188-42-5, 2610-11-9 3221-50-5 14285-51-1 6054-48-4, 6232-57-1, 730-40-5, 121-57-3, 85750-09-0, 85631-85-2, 573-89-7, 72827-75-9, 51988-26-2, 25180-42-1, 25188-41-4, 25188-42-5, 142985-31-1, 123-30-8, 6507-77-3, 6253-10-7, 19800-42-1, 72828-67-2, 156-43-4, 13390-47-1, 68959-01-3, 2870-32-8, 2051-79-8, 56125-08-7, 75198-96-8, 5307-02-8, 63405-85-6, 19800-42-1, 25376-45-8
EnglishScreening of azo dyes for mutagenicity with ames/salmonella assayKaur, A., Sandhu, R. S., & Grover, I. S. (1993). Screening of azo dyes for mutagenicity with ames/salmonella assay. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis , 22(3), 188-190. ToxicityEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis1993Azo dyes, the largest portion of manufactured dyestuffs, are primarily used as colouring substances in food, textiles, and the plastic industry. It has been estimated that 128 tonnes per annum of dyes are released into the environment worldwide [Anliker, 1977]. Certain azo compounds are known to be mutagenic in bacterial tests [Yahagi et al., 1975; Venitt and Bushell, 1976; Brown et al., 1978]. Watersoluble dyes are biotransformed by intestinal micro‐organisms in the gastro intestinal tract, and the toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of these dyes in the gut or liver may be attributed to their metabolites. Since it is desirable to have a genotoxic evaluation of a chemical being released into the environment in order to check their indiscriminate use, a project has been initiated to determine the mutagenicity of the azo dyes being used commercially. The present report deals with the results of 13 dyes tested in Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activation. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc., A Wiley Companyhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8404879Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishPercutaneous absorption of aromatic amines and the risk assessment resulting from the dermal pathway.Korinth, G., Schaller, K. H., & Drexler, H. (2013). Percutaneous absorption of aromatic amines and the risk assessment resulting from the dermal pathway. Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite , 5 E(3), 928-938. ToxicityTo be defined2013Aromatic amines (AA) are compounds of different carcinogenic potency causing occupational bladder cancer. The percutaneous absorption of AA is mostly appraised to be high. Many AA are, therefore, assigned with skin notations. However, for the assessment of the dermal exposure route only little data are available. Additionally, in many studies the skin penetration data for AA are provided as absorbed percentage of applied dose or permeability coefficients, which are less useful in risk assessment. In this overview, the toxicological relevance of percutaneous absorption of AA was evaluated and a percutaneous penetration ranking for some AA is proposed. A continuous skin exposure of hands to AA for a few minutes can exceed the inhalative exposure over 8 hours at occupational threshold limit values in the workplace air. The health risk resulting from the percutaneous absorption of AA can be considerable. Also the dermal exposure to azo dyes, which can be metabolized to AA, should be considered with caution.http://scholar.google.it/scholar_url?url=https://www.bioscience.org/2013/v5e/af/672/2541.doc&hl=it&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm2f6aBoWCDUT9o3rqNKQCUEe8vMAg&nossl=1&oi=scholarr&ved=0ahUKEwiXmd-K5OvYAhWLNxQKHVXEA4MQgAMIJigAMAAAmines Associated with Azo dyes 62-53-3
95-53-4
106-47-8
91-59-8
92-87-5
101-77-9
135-88-6
101-14-4
EnglishTextile dyes xenobiotic and their harmful effectSikaily, A. E., Khaled, A., & El Nemr, A. (2012). Textile dyes xenobiotic and their harmful effect. Non-conventional textile waste water treatment (pp. 31-64) ToxicityBook (section)2012Dyes are xenobiotic compounds that make the world more beautiful through colored substances. However, the release of this colored wastewater represents a serious environmental problem and a public health concern. Textile dyeing effluents containing recalcitrant dyes are polluting waters by their color and formation of toxic or carcinogenic intermediates such as aromatic amines that formed from azo dyes degradation. Therefore, elimination of dyes from textile dyeing effluents currently represents a major ecological concern. © 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.Book chapterAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishQuantifying the contribution of dyes to the mutagenicity of waters under the influence of textile activitiesVacchi, F. I., Vendemiatti, J. A. D. S., da Silva, B. F., Zanoni, M. V. B., & Umbuzeiro, G. D. A. (2017). Quantifying the contribution of dyes to the mutagenicity of waters under the influence of textile activities. Science of the Total Environment , 601-602, 230-236.ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2017The combination of chemical analyses and bioassays allows the identification of potentially mutagenic compounds in different types of samples. Dyes can be considered as emergent contaminants and were detected in waters, under the influence of textile activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of 9 azo dyes to the mutagenicity of representative environmental samples. Samples were collected along one year in the largest conglomerate of textile industries of Brazil. We analyzed water samples from an important water body, Piracicaba River, upstream and downstream two main discharges, the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the tributary Quilombo River, which receives untreated effluent from local industries. Samples were analyzed using a LC-MS/MS and tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay with TA98 and YG1041. Six dyes were detected in the collected samples, Disperse Blue 291, Disperse Blue 373, Disperse Orange 30, Disperse Red 1, Disperse Violet 93, and Disperse Yellow 3. The most sensitive condition for thedetection of the mutagenicity was the strain YG1041 with S9. The concentration of dyes and mutagenicity levels varied along time and the dry season represented the worst condition. Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 were the major contributors to the mutagenicity. We conclude that dyes are contributing for the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River water; and both discharges, WWTP effluent and Quilombo River, increase the mutagenicity of Piracicaba River waters in about 10-fold. The combination of chemical analysis and bioassays were key in the identification the main drivers of the water mutagenicity and allows the selection ofpriority compounds to be included in monitoring programs as well for the enforcing actions required to protect the water quality for multiple uses. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717312019?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes56548-64-2
51868-46-3
2581-69-3
12223-23-3
13301-61-6
2872-52-8
52697-38-8
2832-40-8
6300-37-4
English 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): The effect of multiple oral administration, route, and phenobarbital induction on macromolecular adduct formation in the rat. Cheever, K. L., DeBord, D. G., & Swearengin, T. F. (1991). 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA): The effect of multiple oral administration, route, and phenobarbital induction on macromolecular adduct formation in the rat. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology , 16(1), 71-80. ToxicityFundamental and Applied Toxicology1991The effect of multiple oral administration of MOCA, a suspect human carcinogen, was studied in the adult male rat. As many as 28 consecutive daily doses of [14C]MOCA at 28.1 mumol/kg body wt (5 microCi/day) were administered and rats were euthanized at weekly intervals for 7 weeks. MOCA adduct formation for globin and serum albumin was evaluated by determination of [14C]MOCA covalent binding. The covalent binding associated with globin showed a linear increase over the 28-day exposure period with 342 fmol/mg globin 24 hr after the final dose. More extensive covalent binding was detected for albumin with 443 fmol/mg albumin after the final dose, but increases were not linear. After cessation of dosing, the albumin adduct levels decreased rapidly (t1/2 = 4.6 days) in relation to globin adduct levels (t1/2 = 16.1 days). The MOCA-globin adduct t1/2 is consistent with that determined after a single 281 mumol/kg oral dose of MOCA. Significant differences related to route of administration were detected for 24-hr globin covalent binding with ip greater than po greater than dermal. Distribution of undifferentiated [14C]MOCA was highest in the liver at 24 hr with tissue levels for liver greater than kidney greater than lung greater than spleen greater than testes greater than urinary bladder. Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes by administration of phenobarbital (100 mg/kg/day/3 days) resulted in a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in MOCA-globin adduct formation detected with 33.5 pmol/mg globin for induced rats versus 13.6 pmol/mg globin for control rats. Although MOCA-globin and albumin adducts show differing stability, quantification of such MOCA adducts may be useful for long-term industrial biomonitoring of MOCA.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2019352Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
English Assessing exposure to 4,4-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (mboca) in the workplace. Clapp, D. E., Piacitelli, G. M., Zaebst, D. D., Ward, E., & Clapp, D. E. (1991). Assessing exposure to 4,4-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (mboca) in the workplace. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene , 6(2), 125-130. ToxicityApplied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene1991The chemical 4, 4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) is used commercially as a curing agent for cast polyurethane products. While MBOCA has a low vapor pressure suggesting little likelihood of airborne vapor concentrations, worker exposure to MBOCA is indicated by its presence in urine, suggesting that MBOCA is readily absorbed through the skin. This study was conducted to assess various environmental exposure measurements (air samples, surface wipes, and skin pads) with comparison to biomonitoring (urine samples) results. The inhalation exposures to MBOCA measured by personal sampling were below 1 μg/m3; however, the area sampling indicated air concentrations up to 92 μg/m3. Wipe sampling indicated moderate contamination of the workplace by MBOCA dust (up to 19 μg/100 cm2). The average MBOCA concentration found on skin pads worn on workers' hands was generally less than 10 μg/set, with a high of 25 μg/set. Sixty-six percent of urine samples had detectable concentrations of MBOCA (up to 159 μg/L). The urinary MBOCA results were generally consistent with the workers' potential for exposure as predicted by their proximity to MBOCA sources in their duties, the use of personal protective equipment, and general work practices.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1047322X.1991.10387846Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
English The carcinogenic effect of aromatic amines: An epidemiological study on the role of o-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene bis (2-methylaniline) in inducing bladder cancer in man. Rubino, G. F., Scansetti, G., Piolatto, G., & Pira, E. (1982). The carcinogenic effect of aromatic amines: An epidemiological study on the role of o-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene bis (2-methylaniline) in inducing bladder cancer in man. Environmental Research , 27(2), 241-254. ToxicityEnvironmental Research1982Cause-specific mortality of 906 workers first employed 1922–1970 in a dyestuff factory in Northern Italy was compared to national figures: a marked excess of bladder cancer was observed (36 observed vs 1.23 expected deaths). The mean latent period was 25 years. The excess was higher among those with longer duration of exposure. Some excess of mortality from lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and esophageal cancer was also found, but a clear explanation could not be provided regarding the causal role of aromatic amines. Mortality from bladder cancer was very much higher among those exposed in benzidine and naphthylamines manufacture as compared to those only exposed in use or intermittent contact. Excess bladder cancer was also very high among workers in fuchsin manufacture. There is evidence that o-toluidine and 4,4′-methylene bis(2-methylaniline) should be implicated in such excess mortality. Caution in handling these compounds is therefore suggested and the need for further studies to confirm such findings is stressed.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0013935182900792Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4, 95-53-4
EnglishBiodegradation of textile azo dyes by shewanella putrefaciens (cct 1967). Caselatto, A. M. F., Ferrari Ferreira, J., Basile Tambourgi, E., Moraes, R., & Silveira, E. (2011). Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by shewanella putrefaciens (cct 1967). Chemical Engineering Transactions, 24, 871-876. Anti-pollution systemsChemical Engineering Transactions2011Dyes are toxic to aquatic environment and for human because they are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Due to the large amount of effluent that the textile industry discharges in aquatic environment, the concern with better and more economic treatment is growing. Dyesare recalcitrant to conventional biological treatment, so the research for using the method of biodegradation is to apply selected bacteria capable of degrading these compounds, mineralize the dye, thus reducing or even eliminating the toxicity. The aim of this studyis to test and optimize the degradation of nine azo dyes using the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens (CCT 1967). The discolorations of the dyes were performed in anoxic condition, pH 8.5, temperature 25 °C and addition of carbon source: meat extract 1.5 g.L1 and peptone 2.5 g.L1The dye concentration used was 50mg.L1 and the incubation times were 24 hours and 48 hours. Seven dyes were biodegraded in a percentage of 29 to 81% and two dyes were not biodegraded. © 2011, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255887297_Biodegradation_of_Textile_Azo_Dyes_by_Shewanella_putrefaciens_CCT_1967Amines Associated with Azo dyes5850-35-1, 61814-68-4, 3529-01-9, 547-58-0, 6408-37-7, 10190-68-8, 587-98-4, 6375-55-9
EnglishCombination of advanced oxidation processes and biological treatment for the removal of benzidine-derived dyes.Castro, E., Avellaneda, A., & Marco, P. (2014). Combination of advanced oxidation processes and biological treatment for the removal of benzidine-derived dyes. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 33 (3), 873-885. Anti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Progress and Sustainable Energy2014Dyes are widely used in the textiles industry in order to color their products. Textile industry consumes large volume of water and produce large amount of wastewater during all phases of textile production and finishing. The release of colored wastewater from these industries may present an ecotoxic hazard. Color removal and toxicity reduction, especially from textile effluents, have colossal challenge in recent decades, and up to now there is no single and cost-effectively attractive treatment that can effectively decolorize and the dye effluent treatment. The objective of this review article is to propose a textile wastewater treatment technique from the environmental friendly. An attempt is made to define and evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) as efficient techniques for the treatment of industrial dyes and many other pollutants in textile industry wastewater. However, in general AOPs are not cheap techniques. By means of oxidation process, most pollutants will be converted into molecules, which, in general are better biodegradable. The feasibility of combining different AOPs and biotechnology techniques is considered and evaluated according to their decontamination efficiency of benzidine-derived azo direct dyes used in the cotton textile industry. Ozonation in combination with aerobic biological treatment results as the more feasible system for color removal, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and toxicity reduction. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 873–885, 2014http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ep.11865/fullAmines Associated with Azo dyes2602-46-2, 1937-37-7, 573-58-0, 119-79-9, 92-87-5, 62-53-3, 92-69-3,
English Reduction of azo dyes by anaerobic bacteria: Microbiological and biochemical aspects.Cervantes, F. J., & Santos, A. B. D. (2011). Reduction of azo dyes by anaerobic bacteria: Microbiological and biochemical aspects. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 10 (2), 125-137. Anti-pollution systemsReviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology2011Azo dyes are recalcitrant pollutants commonly found in several industrial wastewaters, such as those originated from textile factories, which generally persist to biological transformation. Discharge of these effluents in open water bodies not only represents an aesthetic problem, but also may limit photosynthesis in aquatic plants. Furthermore, many azo dyes and products derived from their partial transformation in the environment (e.g. aromatic amines) may be toxic or carcinogenic. Biological wastewater treatment processes have emerged as promising technologies to remove azo dyes from industrial effluents and intensive research has been conducted during the last two decades in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the reductive decolourisation of azo dyes. The present work describes the main biochemical and microbiological aspects involved in the reductive decolourisation of azo dyes by anaerobic bacteria.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11157-011-9228-9Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishBacillus algicola decolourises more than 95% of some textile azo dyes.Chukowry, P. K., Mudhoo, A., & Santchurn, S. J. (2017). Bacillus algicola decolourises more than 95% of some textile azo dyes. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 15 (3), 531-536. Anti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Chemistry Letters2017Textile effluents in natural waters pose environmental health problems if not treated to safe limits. Various bacterial species have the potential to degrade dyes. Here we studied the ability of Bacillus algicola to decolourise red, blue and yellow azo dyes. B. algicola was isolated from soil samples taken from a sanitary landfill site. Isolation and screening were performed using mineral salt medium. Dye-decolourising isolates were assessed in their capacity to decolourise dyes. Experiments were conducted at pH 6, 7 and 8, and 25, 35 and 45 °C. Phytotoxicity of the dyes and biodegradation products was assessed by seed germination tests. Results show that B. algicola gave the highest decolourisation at pH 8.0 and 25 °C in the presence of yeast extract as media supplement. B. algicola degraded the red and blue azo dyes by over 95%. The phytotoxicity results indicated that biodegradation products of the red and blue azo dyes were not toxic. Biodegradation products of the yellow dye were, however, toxic and considerably hindered germination. From these results, we infer that B. algicola has good potential for degrading and decolourising the red and blue test azo dyes.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10311-017-0627-1Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
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95-69-2
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992-59-6
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123333-56-2
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EnglishDecolouration of industrial azo dyes by crude laccase from trametes hirsuta.Couto, S. R. (2007). Decolouration of industrial azo dyes by crude laccase from trametes hirsuta. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 148 (3), 768-770. Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2007The decolouration of several azo dyes, commonly used in the leather industry, by crude laccase obtained from Trametes hirsuta cultivation was assessed. Among the six dyes studied four showed a decolouration percentage higher than 50% in 4 h, whereas the other two showed more resistance to degradation. These results show the ability of laccase towards different dye structures as well as its enormous potential for the decolouration of recalcitrant azo dyes.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389407009995Amines Associated with Azo dyes85631-88-5, 12220-20-1, 2503-73-3, 12220-86-9
EnglishAzo dye degradation by bacteria isolated from textile industry effluentDias, E. F., Dias, F. G., Silva, I. S., & Durrant, L. R. (2007). Azo dye degradation by bacteria isolated from textile industry effluent. Battelle Press - 9th International in Situ and on-Site Bioremediation Symposium 2007 , 1. pp. 525-532. Anti-pollution systemsBattelle Press - 9th International in Situ and on-Site Bioremediation Symposium 20072007Azo dyes are synthetic organic compounds widely used in industrial processes. The decolourization of azo dye by microorganisms starts by a reductive cleavage of azo bonds under anaerobic conditions, generating toxic amines. The main objective of this study was to verify microbial biodegradation of azo dyes RBN 198 and PvB 220 by strains isolated from textile industry effluent (Itatiba-SP, Brazil) in microaerobic conditions followed by agitation. The degradation of dyes was evaluated through spectrophotometer and COD reduction analyses. The formation of byproducts using HPLC was also determined. Bacteria identifications were performed by sequencing rRNAs 16S gene. Staphylococcus arlettae completely degraded the RBN 198 and RB 220 after 24 hs and 168 hs and COD reached 41% and 68%, respectively. Micrococcus luteus also completely degraded RBN 198 and RB 220 dye, while COD reduction was 78% for both dyes. These bacteria showed capacity to metabolize degradation products. from the breakdown of dyes under agitation and have potential application in bioremediation. Currently, we are focusing on the formation of amines by reduction of azo dyes, as well as its degradation under aerobic conditions.https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-58449111553&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=Azo+dye+degradation+by+bacteria+isolated+from+textile+industry+effluent&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=26ee365b76a71e82b39276cfea6d390e&sot=b&sdt=sisr&sl=86&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28Azo+dye+degradation+by+bacteria+isolated+from+textile+industry+effluent%29&ref=%28dias%29&relpos=4&citeCnt=0&searchTerm=Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
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610-39-9
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615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
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992-59-6
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123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishDecolourization of textile dyes by the white-rot fungi phanerochaete chrysosporium and pleurotus ostreatus.Faraco, V., Pezzella, C., Giardina, P., Piscitelli, A., Vanhulle, S., & Sannia, G. (2009). Decolourization of textile dyes by the white-rot fungi phanerochaete chrysosporium and pleurotus ostreatus. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84(3), 414-419. Anti-pollution systemsBiotechnology2009Background: The ability of the fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium to decolourize and detoxify 11 (mono-, dis-, poly- azo, and anthraquinonic type) dyes, widely used across the textile and leather industries, was tested. Results: Different substrate specificities were revealed between P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium in decolourization experiments. The latter fungus provided almost complete decolourization of the tested azo dyes up to 600 ppm and disazo dyes up to 1000 ppm, and 80% decolourization of the tris-azo dye DBU1L38 at 1000 ppm, after 6 days. P. ostreatus provided almost total decolourization of the anthraquinone type dye ABU62 (1000 ppm) after just 1 day. P. ostreatus also showed the ability to decolourize the tested dis-azo and tris-azo dyes, giving the best performances against the dis-azo DBU1U1 (600 ppm) dye, which was 100% decolourized after 6 days. Laccases proved to be the main enzymatic activities acting in P. ostreatus decolourization. Conclusion: The potential of the fungi P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium as efficient bio-systems for decolourization and detoxification of several toxic industrial dyes was demonstrated. The role of laccases in the decolourization of dis-azo dyes by P. ostreatus was demonstrated for the first time. © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jctb.2055/abstractAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
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992-59-6
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123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishA novel kinetic approach for photocatalytic degradation of azo dye with CdS and Ag/CdS nanoparticles fixed on a cement bed in a continuous-flow photoreactorFard, N. E., & Fazaeli, R. (2016). A novel kinetic approach for photocatalytic degradation of azo dye with CdS and Ag/CdS nanoparticles fixed on a cement bed in a continuous-flow photoreactor. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics, 48 (11), 691-701. Anti-pollution systemsInternational Journal of Chemical Kinetics2016Azo dyes are one of the synthetic dyes that have been used in many textile industries. Azo dye and their intermediate products are toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic to aquatic life. Removal of azo dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes by nanoparticles is one of the environment-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Therefore, this study focused on degradation of azo dye, Direct Red 264. Photocatalytic degradation of DR 264 azo dye was investigated using CdS and Ag/CdS nanoparticles immobilized on a cement bed in a continuous-flow photoreactor under UV-C exposure. The effect of the parameters of type and mass of catalyst, temperature, flow rate, dye concentration, and light intensity were evaluated for azo dye removal. Under optimal conditions, photocatalytic degradation of DR 264 azo dye using Ag/CdS nanoparticles immobilized on a cement bed in a continuous-flow photoreactor obtained an efficiency of 99.99%. A developed kinetic model was proposed based on the intrinsic elementary reactions. The proposed model is in a good agreement with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) equation. The pseudo–steady-state approximation has considered for the concentration of hydroxyl radicals associated with the L–H model under certain conditions and explains consistently the dependence of the apparent kinetic parameter, kobs (the reaction rate constant), and KR (the adsorption equilibrium constant) with the light intensity. Based on the model, kobs for Ag/CdS was greater than the CdS nanoparticles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/kin.21025/fullAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
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10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
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106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
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992-59-6
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123333-56-2
100-01-6
English Identification of biotransformation products of disperse dyes with rat liver microsomes by LC-MS/MS and theoretical studies with DNA: Structure-mutagenicity relationship using Salmonella/microsome assay.Franco, J. H., Silva, B. F. D., Oliveira, R. V., Meireles, G., de Oliveira, D. P., Castro, A. A. D., et al. (2018). Identification of biotransformation products of disperse dyes with rat liver microsomes by LC-MS/MS and theoretical studies with DNA: Structure-mutagenicity relationship using Salmonella/microsome assay. Science of the Total Environment , 613-614, 1093-1103. Anti-pollution systemsScience of the Total Environment2018Azo dyes are known as a group of substances with DNA damage potential that depend on the nature and number of azo groups connected to aromatic rings (benzene and naphthalene), chemical properties, e.g. solubility and reactive functional groups, which significantly affect their toxicological and ecological risks. In this paper, we used in vitro models to evaluate the metabolism of selected textile dyes: Disperse Red 73 (DR 73), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Disperse Red 167 (DR 167). To evaluate the mutagenic potential of the textile dyes, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test) with strains TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence and absence of the exogenous metabolic system (S9) was used. DR73 was considered the most mutagenic compound, inducing both replacement base pairs (TA 100) and also changing frameshift (TA 98) mutations that are reduced in the presence of the S9 mixture. Furthermore, we used rat liver microsomes in the same experimental conditions of the S9 mixture to metabolize the dyes and the resultant solutions were analyzed using a liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the metabolites formed by the in vitro biotransformation. Based on this experiment, we detected and identified two biotransformation products for each textile dye substrate analyzed. Furthermore, to evaluate the interaction and reactivity of these compounds with DNA, theoretical calculations were also carried out. The results showed that the chemical reaction occurred preferentially at the azo group and the nitro group, indicating that there was a reduction in these groups by the CYP P450 enzymes presented in the rat microsomal medium. Our results clearly demonstrated that the reduction of these dyes by biological systems is a great environmental concern due to increased genotoxicity for the body of living beings, especially for humans. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717322933?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes16889-10-4, 12223-40-4, 61968-52-3
EnglishElectrolysis within anaerobic bioreactors stimulates breakdown of toxic products from azo dye treatment.Gavazza, S., Guzman, J. J. L., & Angenent, L. T. (2015). Electrolysis within anaerobic bioreactors stimulates breakdown of toxic products from azo dye treatment. Biodegradation, 26 (2), 151-160. Anti-pollution systemsBiodegradation,2015Azo dyes are the most widely used coloring agents in the textile industry, but are difficult to treat. When textile effluents are discharged into waterways, azo dyes and their degradation products are known to be environmentally toxic. An electrochemical system consisting of a graphite-plate anode and a stainless-steel mesh cathode was placed into a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor to evaluate the removal of an azo dye (Direct Black 22) from synthetic textile wastewater. At applied potentials of 2.5 and 3.0 V when water electrolysis occurs, no improvement in azo dye removal efficiency was observed compared to the control reactor (an integrated system with electrodes but without an applied potential). However, applying such electric potentials produces oxygen via electrolysis and promoted the aerobic degradation of aromatic amines, which are toxic, intermediate products of anaerobic azo dye degradation. The removal of these amines indicates a decrease in overall toxicity of the effluent from a single-stage anaerobic bioreactor, which warrants further optimization in anaerobic digestion. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10532-015-9723-8Amines Associated with Azo dyes6473-13-8
EnglishBiodecolorization of textile azo dye using bacillus sp. strain CH12 isolated from alkaline lake.Guadie, A., Tizazu, S., Melese, M., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H., & Xia, S. (2017). Biodecolorization of textile azo dye using bacillus sp. strain CH12 isolated from alkaline lake. Biotechnology Reports, 15 , 92-100. Anti-pollution systemsBiotechnology Reports2017Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (≥98%) and organic nitrogen (∼100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30 °C and the pH of10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1–8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (≤6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50−250 mg/L) and six additional dyes.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2215017X1630056X?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes89157-03-9, 61931-52-0, 61951-82-4, 61951-85-7, 129898-77-7, 124448-55-1, 2580-78-1
EnglishPhotocatalytic degradation of textile dye and wastewater. Gümüs, D., & Akbal, F. (2011). Photocatalytic degradation of textile dye and wastewater. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 216 (1-4), 117-124. Anti-pollution systemsWater, Air, and Soil Pollution2011In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of commercial azo dye (Remazol Red 133) in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions as photocatalyst was investigated. The effect of various operational parameters, such as pH of dye solution and catalyst concentration on the photocatalytic degradation process, was examined. The mineralization of dye was also evaluated by measuring the chemical oxygen demand of the dye solutions. The extent of photocatalytic degradationwas found to increase with increasing TiO2 concentration. For the Remazol Red dye solutions, a 120-min treatment resulted in 97.9% decolorization and 87.6% degradation at catalyst loading of 3 g/L. Experiments using real textile wastewater were also carried out. Textile wastewater degradation was enhanced at acidic conditions. The decolorization and degradation efficiencies for textile wastewater were 97.8% and 84.9% at pH 3.0, catalyst loading of 3 g/L, and treatment time of120 min. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11270-010-0520-zAmines Associated with Azo dyes145017-98-7
EnglishPhotocatalytic and combined anaerobic-photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes. Harrelkas, F., Paulo, A., Alves, M. M., El Khadir, L., Zahraa, O., Pons, M. N., et al. (2008). Photocatalytic and combined anaerobic-photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes. Chemosphere, 72 (11), 1816-1822. Anti-pollution systemsChemosphere,2008A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment. Photocatalysis was able to remove more than 90% color from crude as well as autoxidized chemically reduced dye solutions. UV-absorbance and COD were also removed but to a lower extent (50% in average). The end products of photocatalytic treatment were not toxic toward methanogenic bacteria. The results demonstrate that photocatalysis can be used as a pre- or post-treatment method to biological anaerobic treatment of dye-containing textilewastewater. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653508006760?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes1934-20-9, 17095-24-8, 6014-69-3,
English A comparative study of biodegradation of textile azo dyes by escherichia coli and pseudomonas putida. Hilda Josephine, S., & Sekar, A. S. S. (2014). A comparative study of biodegradation of textile azo dyes by escherichia coli and pseudomonas putida. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 13 (2), 417-420. Anti-pollution systemsNature Environment and Pollution Technology2014Azo dyes are synthetic in origin having complex aromatic structure and widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Most of the azodyes used in textile industry are xenobiotic compounds and recalcitrant to conventional degradation process. These dyes cause serious environmental problems because of their carcinogenic nature and reduced penetration of light in aquatic environment. In the present study, the efficiency of the two bacterial cultures on degradation of three different toxic azo dyes (acid, direct and reactive azo dyes) were analysed. The bacterial strains used in this study are Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida. To increase the degradation potential, the organisms were acclimatized to the dye environment for sufficient period by gradually decreasing the nutrient broth concentration and increasing the dye concentration so that it can effectively degrade dye rich textile effluent. The effect of concentration of dye, pH, temperature and agitation was studied to determine the optimal conditions for effective decolourisation and degradation. FT-IR and UV spectral analysis were performed to confirm the biodecolourisation.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288047266_A_comparative_study_of_biodegradation_of_textile_Azo_dyes_by_escherichia_coli_and_Pseudomonas_putidaAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishMicrobial decolourisation of rathiline navy blue dye using immobilized fungal and actinomycetal biomass.Jadhav, A. B., Bura, D. S., Borage, A. A., Ghogare, P. D., & Adhapure, N. N. (2014). Microbial decolourisation of rathiline navy blue dye using immobilized fungal and actinomycetal biomass. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 13 (3), 535-540. Anti-pollution systemsNature Environment and Pollution Technology2014Textile industry generates large quantities of dyes like azo dyes, direct dyes, reactive dyes, basic dyes, synthetic dyes which are very toxic and difficult to dispose. Many dyes are toxic, carcinogenic or prepared from known carcinogens such as benzidine or other aromatic compounds. Considering adverse effect of aniline dye and their product (present in textile effluent), decolourisation of aniline dye is essential before releasing it in environment. Immobilised fungal cells have several advantages over dispersed cells such as simple reuse of the biomass, easier liquid-solid separation and minimal clogging in continuous-flow systems. Cell immobilization lowers the apparent broth viscosity and makes the rheological features more favourable for oxygen supply and mass transfer. In present dye decolourisation process, we have used live biomass of two different fungi (Aspergillus terreus and one unknown fungus) and Actinomycete (Streptomyces). Live biomass of the two fungi and one actinomycetes gives maximum decolourisation of dye as compared to dead biomass. We have also assessed the effect ofdecolourised water on seed germination.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287510806_Microbial_decolourisation_of_rathiline_navy_blue_dye_using_immobilized_fungal_and_actinomycetal_biomassAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishScreening, identification and optimization of a yeast strain, candida palmioleophila JKS4, capable of azo dye decolorization.Jafari, N., Kasra-Kermanshahi, R., & Reaz Soudi, M. (2013). Screening, identification and optimization of a yeast strain, candida palmioleophila JKS4, capable of azo dye decolorization. Iranian Journal of Microbiology, 5 (4), 434-440. Anti-pollution systemsIranian Journal of Microbiology2013Background and Objectives: Synthetic dyes are recalcitrant to degradation and toxic to different organisms. Decolorization of textile wastewaters is one of the major concerns since last decades. Physical-chemical treatments are very expensive and frequently producing large amounts of toxic wastes. Biological treatments can be more convenient. In the present study, an attempt has been made for decolorization of azo dyes using microbial process. Material and Methods: Screening ofmicroorganisms capable of azo dye decolorization was performed from activated sludge. The decolorization of various dyes (Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Red 198, Direct Blue 71, Direct Yellow 12 and Direct Black 22) was determined by measuring the absorbance of culture supernatant at their λmax. Culture supernatants were also analyzed for UV-Vis absorption between 200-800 nm. The effect of aeration, temperature, different concentrations of glucose and NaCl was studied with an aim to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolorization. Results: The yeast (strain JKS4) which had high ability to decolorize different azo dyes was isolated. Under aerobic condition, the yeast strain showed 85.7% of decolorization at 200 mg/l Reactive Black 5 (as a model azo dye), 1% (w/v) glucose concentration and 35°C after 24 h. All the examined dyes were extensively decolorized (53.35-97.9%) after 24 h. With elongated incubation period, complete decolorization was observed in presence of all dyes. From the physiological properties and phylogenetic analysis based on the 26S rDNA sequences, strain JKS4 was classified into Candida palmioleophila. Conclusions: Because of high decolorizing activity against various azo dyes commonly used in the textile industries, it is proposed that the isolated yeast may have a practical application in the biotransformation of various dye effluents.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385174/Amines Associated with Azo dyes17095-24-8, 12225-83-1, 78952-61-1, 145017-98-7, 4399-55-7, 2870-32-8, 6473-13-8
EnglishBiodegradation perspectives of azo dyes by yeasts.Jafari, N., Soudi, M. R., & Kasra-Kermanshahi, R. (2014). Biodegradation perspectives of azo dyes by yeasts. Microbiology (Russian Federation), 83 (5), 484-497. Anti-pollution systemsMicrobiology (Russian Federation)2014Azo dyes are the largest class of synthetic dyes, which are widely used in the textile industry. The amount of dyestuff does not bind to the fibers and is lost in wastewater during textile processing. The discharge of colored effluents into the environment is not only aesthetically unpleasing. Moreover, dyes and their break-down products cause toxic effects and they affect photosynthetic activity of aquatic systems by reducing light penetration. A number of microorganisms belonging to different taxonomic groups of bacteria, algae, fungi and yeast have been reported for their ability to decolorize azo dyes. In the literature the ability to decolorize azo dyes by yeasts, compared to bacterial and fungal species, has been studied in a few reports. Within this review, an attempt is made to elucidate some basic biological aspects associated with the azo dye degradation by yeasts and enzymes involved that are responsible for degradation process. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0026261714050130Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
English The application of functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructures for the removal of textile dyes from wastewater. Jiménez-Jiménez, J., Algarra, M., Guimarães, V., Bobos, I., & Rodríguez-Castellón, E. (2017). The application of functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructures for the removal of textile dyes from wastewater. Materials, 10 (10) Anti-pollution systemsMaterials,2017A synthesized functionalized pillared porous phosphate heterostructure (PPH), surface functionalized phenyl group, has been used to remove the dye Acid Blue 113 from wastewater. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study its structure. The specific surface area of this was 498 m2/g. The adsorption capacities of PPH and phenyl surface functionalized (Π-PPH) were 0.0400 and 0.0967 mmol/g, respectively, with a dye concentration of 10-5 M when well fitted with SIPS and Langmuir isotherms respectively (pH 6.5, 25 °C).The incorporation of the dye to the adsorbent material was monitored by the S content ofthe dye. It is suggested as an alternative for Acid Blue 113 remediation. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/10/1111Amines Associated with Azo dyes3351-05-1
EnglishStudies on degradation of reactive textile dyes solution by electrochemical methodKariyajjanavar, P., Jogttappa, N., & Nayaka, Y. A. (2011). Studies on degradation of reactive textile dyes solution by electrochemical method. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 190 (1-3), 952-961. Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2011The indirect electrochemical degradation of industrial effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. This paper deals with the electrochemical degradation of Novacron Deep Red C-D (NDRCD) and Novacron Orange C-RN (NOCRN) reactive azo dyes from aqueous solution using graphite carbon electrodes. The results indicated that initial pH, current density and supporting electrolytes were played an important role in the degradation of dyes. Electrochemical behavior of reactive azo dyes has been studied with cyclic voltammetry in acidic medium using pencil graphite as working electrode. The potentials selected for the two dyes were in the range +1.0 to -0.4V and +0.5 to -0.2V, respectively. The CV, UV-Vis and chemical oxygen demand (COD) studies were selected to evaluate the degradation efficiency. The maximum colour removal efficiency of 99% and 97% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 88% and 82% could be achieved for CDRCD and COCRN, respectively at 7gL -1 of NaCl concentration. The LC-MS study revealed the degradation of both the dyes and confirmed that the azo groups and aromatic rings were destroyed. The results revealed the suitability of the present process for the effective degradation of dye effluents. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389411004705?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes577954-20-2, 181581-70-4
English Adsorption characteristics of acid orange 10 from aqueous solutions onto montmorillonite clay.Kaur, M., & Datta, M. (2011). Adsorption characteristics of acid orange 10 from aqueous solutions onto montmorillonite clay. Adsorption Science and Technology, 29 (3), 301-318. Anti-pollution systemsAdsorption Science and Technology2011Azo dyes have been identified as the most toxic of all dyes since they may be converted into potentially carcinogenic and/or mutagenic amines as a result of the reductive cleavage of the azo linkages after being released into the aquatic environment. Azo dyes are extensively used in industries such as textile, paint, plastic, cosmetic and paper. The aim of the present work was to develop a clay-based methodology which could successfully be employed for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorption characteristics of C.I. Acid Orange 10 (AO 10) onto montmorillonite (MMT) and surfactant-modified MMT have been studied as a function of the dye concentration, the pH of the aqueous dye solution and the contact time. The dye adsorption efficiency of MMT was found to be much less than that of surfactant-modified MMT (CTAB-MMT and CPC-MMT), with 100% adsorption efficiency being observed for the removal of 160 ppm and 220 ppm ofthe dye by CTAB-MMT and CPC-MMT, respectively. In both cases, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1260/0263-6174.29.3.301Amines Associated with Azo dyes1936-15-8
EnglishBio-degradation of azo dye (congo red) by pleurotus ostreatus and tricholoma lobayense.Kaviyarasan, V., Mohan, N., Kannan, V., Ebenezer, P., & Karthikeyan, S. (2003). Bio-degradation of azo dye (congo red) by pleurotus ostreatus and tricholoma lobayense. Pollution Research, 22 (1), 77-80. Anti-pollution systemsPollution Research2003Azo dyes, despite being banned, are still widely used in many textile industries in India. Effluents from these industries are indiscriminately discharged into fields or nearby water ways. These dyes are toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic to various microbiological, fish and mammalian species. Two tropically grown edible mushrooms namely, Pleurotus ostretus and Tricholoma lobayense degrade the dyes without much input of energy. In vitro studies showed complete decolorization of the azo dye (Congo red) by these organisms within 28 days as revealed by spectrophotometric analysis. However, spore germination assay showed that toxicity of the dye was reduced by these fungi only to the extent of 20%.

Bio-degradation of azo dye (Congo red) by Pleurotus ostreatus and Tricholoma lobayense. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286826783_Bio-degradation_of_azo_dye_Congo_red_by_Pleurotus_ostreatus_and_Tricholoma_lobayense [accessed Dec 21 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286826783_Bio-degradation_of_azo_dye_Congo_red_by_Pleurotus_ostreatus_and_Tricholoma_lobayenseAmines Associated with Azo dyes573-58-0
English The Biodegradation of Azo Dyes by Actinobacteria.Khalid A., Mahmood S. (2015) The Biodegradation of Azo Dyes by Actinobacteria. In: Singh S. (eds) Microbial Degradation of Synthetic Dyes in Wastewaters. Environmental Science and Engineering . Springer, ChamAnti-pollution systemsEnvironmental Science and Engineering2015Synthetic dyes have wide application in the textile, leather, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, paper and food industry. According to an estimate, global production of synthetic dyes is more than 700,000 tonnes and textile sector consumes about 60 % of the total production of dyes (Robinson et al. in Biresour Technol 77:247–255, 2001; Shinde and Thorat in Rev Res 2:1–7, 2013).https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-10942-8_13Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
English Effective bioremoval and detoxification of textile dye mixture by alishewanella sp. KMK6Kolekar, Y. M., Konde, P. D., Markad, V. L., Kulkarni, S. V., Chaudhari, A. U., & Kodam, K. M. (2013). Effective bioremoval and detoxification of textile dye mixture by alishewanella sp. KMK6. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97 (2), 881-889. Anti-pollution systemsApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology2013Alishewanella sp. strain KMK6 was able to degrade mixture of textile dyes (0.5-2.0 g l(-1)) within 8 h. An initial 28 % reduction in COD was observed immediately after decolorization at static anoxic conditions which on further incubation at shaking conditions reduced by 90 %. Partially purified azoreductase was able to utilize different azo dyes as substrates. The HPLC profile of dye degradation showed formation of metabolic products. Further FTIR analysis showed significant changes in the peaks corresponding to functional groups present in dye mixture and its degradation products. The genotoxicity assessment showed that the dye degradation products were non-toxic compared to dye mixture.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-012-3983-6Amines Associated with Azo dyes3567-69-9, 61951-85-7, 12270-71-2, 532-82-1, 4353-89-3, 12225-82-0, 915-67-3, 77907-32-5
English Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules. Kolekar, Y. M., Nemade, H. N., Markad, V. L., Adav, S. S., Patole, M. S., & Kodam, K. M. (2012). Decolorization and biodegradation of azo dye, reactive blue 59 by aerobic granules. Bioresource Technology, 104 , 818-822. Anti-pollution systemsBioresource Technology2012The present study deals with development of aerobic granules from textile wastewater sludge and challenged with different concentration of reactive blue 59 (RB59) to test their dye degradation potential. The granules efficiently degraded reactive blue 59 and also sustained higher dye loading of up to 5.0 g l(-1). The significant induction of enzymes azoreductase and cytochrome P-450 indicated their prominent role in the dye degradation while genotoxicity studies demonstrated that the biotransformed product of the dye as non-toxic. The microbial community of the textile dyes degrading aerobic sludge granules analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), revealed significantly diverse dye degrading microbial community belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-proteobacteria.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852411016579?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes12270-71-2
English Uptake of azo dyes into silk glands for production of colored silk cocoons using a green feeding approach.Nisal, A., Trivedy, K., Mohammad, H., Panneri, S., Sen Gupta, S., Lele, A., et al. (2014). Uptake of azo dyes into silk glands for production of colored silk cocoons using a green feeding approach. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering , 2(2), 312-317. Anti-pollution systemsACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering2014Dyeing of textile fabrics is considered to be one of the most polluting industries today, and there is a need to develop green processes that can reduce this pollution. A promising technology that can potentially cleanup the dyeing of silk fibers that are widely used for textile applications would involve the generation of intrinsically colored silk cocoons. This can be achieved by feeding of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae with a modified feed of mulberry leaves containing a sprayed dye solution. This process significantly reduces the need for treating toxic dye effluents that are generated in traditional dyeing processes. In this report, we have evaluated a set of seven different azo dyes that are used in the textile industry for dyeing to produce intrinsically dyed silk. The dyes used in the study had similar chemical structures with systematically varying partition coefficients. The results suggest that while some dyes produced intrinsically colored silk other did not. Careful evaluation of the physical properties of these related azo dyes suggest that the balance of hydrophobic and hydrophilic character is necessary for diffusion of the dye from the alimentary canal of the silkworm larva into the hemolymph and later into the silk glands. The partition coefficient of the dye also determines the preferential association of the dye with either sericin or fibroin protein in the silkworm gland and finally into the cocoon. These insights are extremely important in development of novel dye molecules that can be successfully fed to Bombyx mori silkworm larvae for producing intrinsically colored silk of various colors and shades. © 2013 American Chemical Society.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/sc400355kAmines Associated with Azo dyes3051-11-4, 573-58-0, 1936-15-8 , 633-96-5, 2538-85-4, 1658-56-6, 85-86-9
English Isolation of mixed bacterial culture from rajshahi silk industrial zone and their efficiency in azo dye decolorizationParvin, F., Rahman, M. M., Islam, M. M., Jahan, N., Shaekh, M. P. E., Sarkar, I., et al. (2015). Isolation of mixed bacterial culture from rajshahi silk industrial zone and their efficiency in azo dye decolorization. Indian Journal of Science and Technology , 8(10), 950-957. Anti-pollution systemsIndian Journal of Science and Technology2015Background: Textile wastewater has become one of the major sources of severe environmental pollution due to the increasing demand for textile products around the world. It contains toxic azo dyes which adversely affect the environment including water bodies, soil and all living organisms. Dye decolorization through microbial community is an area of extensive research; in addition to, removal of azo dyes from contaminated sites using microorganisms is an environmental-friendly and cost-competitive alternative to chemical decomposition processes. Hence, this study aimed to isolate some local bacterial strains, which possessed the ability to decolorize azo dye containing wastewater. Methods: The strains were isolated as mixed bacterial culture from textile effluent collected from Rajshahi silk industrial zone, Bangladesh. Different experiments were set up including-isolation of mixed bacterial culture, growth characteristics observation and optimization, finally treatment of dye containing wastewater. Results: The optimum growth of this culture was observed in LB medium containing 10g/L peptone and 5 g/L yeast extract, and the temperature ranges from 30 to 40°C, pH 7.2 to 7.5 and in the presence of light. Five different (0.5%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%) concentrations of dye containing wastewater (ash and green color) was treated in the temperature of 37°C in anaerobic condition and in the incubation period of 0 to 15days. The mixed consortia were more effective on low concentration of dye. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that the selected mixed culture had the ability to cleave azo bonds and thus they are capable to neutralize the textile azo dyes. It indicated that this mixed bacterial culture was able to utilize the dyes as their carbon and energy source. Extracellular enzyme of these bacteria which called azoreductase was responsible to cleave the azo bonds of used textile dyes.http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/view/57152Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishDestruction of azo dyes by anaerobic–aerobic sequential biological treatment: A reviewPopli, S., & Patel, U. D. (2015). Destruction of azo dyes by anaerobic–aerobic sequential biological treatment: A review. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12 (1), 405-420. Anti-pollution systemsInternational Journal of Environmental Science and Technology2015Dyes are synthetic organic compounds widely used in various industries such as, textile, leather, plastic, food, pharmaceutical, and paints manufacturing industries. Coloured effluents are highly toxic to the aquatic life and mutagenic to humans. Wastewater containing dyes has become an important issue demanding serious attention. Among the synthetic dyes, azo dyes are the largest and most widely used dyes and account for more than half of the annually produced dyes. The biodegradation of azo dyes is difficult due to their complex structure and synthetic nature. Several treatments have been proposed for efficient azo dye removal, most of them presenting some limitations such as generation of waste sludge, high operational costs, poor efficiency, and incomplete mineralization. Biological treatment is a cost-effective and eco-friendly process for dye degradation. Sequential anaerobic–aerobic biological treatment is considered as one of the most cost-effective methods for the complete mineralization of azo dyes. The anaerobic stage yields decolourization through reductive cleavage of the dye’s azo linkages, resulting in the formation of generally colourless but potentially hazardous aromatic amines. The aerobic stage involves degradation of the aromatic amines. It is the most logical step for removing the azo dyes from the wastewater. Several factors can influence the microbial activity and consequently the efficacy and effectiveness of the complete biodegradation processes. This paper summarizes the results of biological decolourization of azo dyes using various types of reactors, elaborates biochemical mechanisms involved, and discusses influence of various operational parameters on decolourization based on reports published in the last decade.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13762-014-0499-x Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishSynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bacterial exopolysaccharide and its application for degradation of azo-dyes.Saravanan, C., Rajesh, R., Kaviarasan, T., Muthukumar, K., Kavitake, D., & Shetty, P. H. (2017). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using bacterial exopolysaccharide and its application for degradation of azo-dyes. Biotechnology Reports, 15 , 33-40. Anti-pollution systemsBiotechnology Reports2017In this study, the synthesis and characterization of exopolysaccharide-stabilized sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out for the degradation of industrial textile dyes. Characterization of AgNPs was done using surface plasmon spectra using UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological nature of AgNPs was determined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which indicated that the AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 35 nm. The thermal behaviour of AgNPs revealed that it is stable up to 437.1 °C and the required energy is 808.2J/g in TGA-DTA analysis. Ability of EPS stabilized AgNPs for degradation of azo dyes such as Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) showed that EPS stabilized AgNPs were found to be efficient in facilitating the degradation process of industrial textile dyes. The electron transfer takes place from reducing agent to dye molecule via nanoparticles, resulting in the destruction of the dye chromophore structure. This makes EPS-AgNPs a suitable, cheap and environment friendly candidate for biodegradation of harmful textile dyes. © 2017http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2215017X17300516?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
English Enzymatic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes - A review. Singh, R. L., Singh, P. K., & Singh, R. P. (2015). Enzymatic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes - A review. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 104 , 21-31. Anti-pollution systemsInternational Biodeterioration and Biodegradation2015Azo dyes are aromatic compounds with one or more -N. N- groups. These dyes are the most important and largest class of synthetic dyes used in commercial applications. Several methods have already been used to treat textile effluents including physico-chemical methods such as filtration, carbon activated, coagulation and chemical flocculation. Although these methods are effective, but they are expensive and involve formation of concentrated sludge that creates a secondary disposal problem. In recent years, use of bioremediation based technologies for treating textile wastewater containing dyes has attracted much interest. The ability of microorganisms and their dye degrading enzymes to decolorize and metabolize the dyes has long been known and has proved to be the best option for bioremediation. As far as decolorization and degradation of textile dyes are concerned, azoreductases, laccases, peroxidases and many other important enzymes seem to have shown great potential to decolorize the textile dyes and these enzymes are considered as effective molecular weapon for bioremediation of azo dyes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964830515001572?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
English Microbial decolouration of azo dyes: A reviewSolís, M., Solís, A., Pérez, H. I., Manjarrez, N., & Flores, M. (2012). Microbial decolouration of azo dyes: A review. Process Biochemistry, 47 (12), 1723-1748. Anti-pollution systems Process Biochemistry2012The textile industry is a substantial consumer of water and produces enormous volumes of contaminated water; the most important contaminants are azo dyes. Microbial processes for the treatment of textile wastewater have the advantage of being cost-effective and environmentally friendly and producing less sludge. The most promising microorganisms for wastewater treatment are those isolated from sites contaminated with dyes or from the sludge of treatment plants because they have adapted to survive in adverse conditions. The mechanism of microbial decolouration occurs from adsorption, enzymatic degradation or a combination ofboth. Both reductases and oxidases are involved in the microbial degradation process. The goal of microbial treatment is to decolourise and detoxify the dye-contaminated effluents. In this review, we summarise the methodologies used to evaluate the toxicity of azo dyes and their degradation products. Recent studies on the decolouration or degradation of azo dyes using algae, yeast, filamentous fungi and bacteria, genetically modified microorganisms, microbial consortia and microbiological systems combined with Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) and Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are discussed in this review. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359511312003327?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishBiological degradation of reactive dyes by using bacteria isolated from dye effluent contaminated soil.Sriram, N., Reetha, D., & Saranraj, P. (2013). Biological degradation of reactive dyes by using bacteria isolated from dye effluent contaminated soil. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 17 (12), 1695-1700. Anti-pollution systemsMiddle East Journal of Scientific Research2013The textile industry is one of the industries that generate a high volume of waste water. Strong colour of the textile waste water is the most serious problem of the textile waste effluent. The disposal of these wastes into receiving water causes damage to the environment. Dyes may significantly affect photosynthetic activity in aquatic habitat because of reduced light penetration and may also be toxic to some aquatic life due to the presence of aromatics, metals, chlorides and other toxic compounds. The present study was carried out to degrade the textile Reactive azo dyes by using bacteria isolated from dye contaminated soil. Three different bacterial isolate such as, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated from textile dye effluent contaminated soil sample and used for the degradation study. It was noticed that there was a decrease in the OD in all the three species of all the five dyes as the incubation period increased. Pseudomonas fluorescens was more effective followed by Bacillus and Escherichia coli. It was found that all the isolated bacteria were efficient decolourizers of Reactive textile azo dyes. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr17(12)13/11.pdfAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishElectrocatalytic treatment of waste: Studies on discoloration of an industrial azo dye effluent. Vaghela, S. S., Jethva, A. D., Gohil, M. S., Subbarayappa, A., Gour, P. M., Susarla, V. S., et al. (2003). Electrocatalytic treatment of waste: Studies on discoloration of an industrial azo dye effluent. Annali Di Chimica, 93 (9-10), 841-848. Anti-pollution systemsAnnali Di Chimica2003A textile dye effluent containing chiefly reactive azo dyes has been treated electrochemically for discoloration and COD (chemical oxygen demand) reduction at different current densities, flow rates and dilution. Experiments have been carried out in a thin electrochemical reactor under single pass conditions using a dimensionally stable catalytic anode (DSA) and a stainless steel cathode.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14672378Amines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishDevelopment of novel cross-linked chitosan for the removal of anionic congo red dye. Zahir, A., Aslam, Z., Kamal, M. S., Ahmad, W., Abbas, A., & Shawabkeh, R. A. (2017). Development of novel cross-linked chitosan for the removal of anionic congo red dye. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 244 , 211-218. Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Molecular Liquids2017The research results summarize the potential of novel cross-linked chitosan for the removal of Congo red dye from an aqueous phase. Synthesized materials were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM. The effects of several process conditions like effect of adsorbent dose, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature were investigated. Equilibrium adsorption data was best fitted to Sips Isotherm model and maximum dye uptake was 1597 (mg/g) for diammonium tartrate modified chitosan (DMC) while 1447 (mg/g) for urea diammonium tartrate modified chitosan (UDMC). The adsorption kinetic data was well followed by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters (Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy) suggested the feasible and endothermic nature of Congo red adsorption over both adsorbents. The analyzed results indicated the promising ability of novel cross-linked chitosan for the removal of Congo redfrom aqueous phase and it can be extended to use in the treatment of textile wastewater. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167732217333184?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes573-58-0
EnglishSynthesis and spectroscopic characterization of azoic dyes based on pyrazolone derivatives catalyzed by an acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle.Isaad, J., & El Achari, A. (2018). Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of azoic dyes based on pyrazolone derivatives catalyzed by an acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1154, 557-564. Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Molecular Structure2018Novel family of azoic dyes pyrazolone based were prepared by an efficient and rapid methodology through diazotization reaction of different pyrazolone amine derivatives, in the presence of acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles as acidic catalyst at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions. The attractive advantages of the present process include short reaction times, milder and cleaner conditions, higher purity and yields, easy isolation of products, easier work-up procedure and lower generation of waste or pollution. This catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and the recovered catalyst was reused several times without any significant loss of activity. Therefore, this method provides improved protocol over the existing methods. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022286017314370?via%3DihubAmines Associated with Azo dyes101-14-4
101-77-9
101-80-4
10343-55-2
106-47-8
106-49-0
106-50-3
106-93-4
106-94-5
108-44-1
108-45-2
110735-25-6
113741-92-7
118658-99-4
119-90-4
119-93-7
120-71-8
121-14-2
12222-37-6
12222-97-8
12223-01-7
12223-33-5
12235-72-2
12238-49-2
12238-94-7
129-43-1
129-73-7
1320-07-6
132-32-1
13301-61-6
134-32-7
137-17-7
139-65-1
143860-04-2
151126-94-2; 85136-74-9
16071-86-6
16143-79-6
1694-09-3
17095-24-8
1937-37-7
2092-56-0
23355-64-8
2429-71-2
2429-72-3
2429-73-4
2429-74-5
2429-80-3
2465-27-2
2475-45-8
2481-94-9
25180-27-2
25180-39-6
25180-41-0
25255-06-5
25321-14-6
25376-45-8
2580-78-1
2581-69-3
2586-57-4
2586-58-5
2602-46-2
2610-05-1
2832-40-8
28407-37-6
2872-52-8
293733-21-8
29398-96-7
314-13-6
3179-89-3
33363-87-0
334-88-3
344298-96-0
3567-65-5
367-21-5
3761-53-3
3811-71-0
4198-19-0
4378-61-4
4399-55-7
5160-02-1
537-58- 0
54077-16-6
5413-75-2
54804-85-2
548-62-9
569-61-9
573-58-0
5858-30-0
5858-39-9
5858-63-9
60-09-3
60-11-7
602-01-7
606-20-2
610-39-9
613-35-4
615-05-04
615-05-4
618-85-9
619-15-8
61951-51-7
61968-47-6
6226-78-4
6226-80-8
6245-62-1
6250-23-3
62-53-3
6300-37-4
6300-53-4
6358-43-6
6358-64-1
6358-80-1
6360-29-8
6420-09-3
6420-22-0
6428-98-4
6441-93-6
6459-94-5
6472-91-9
6473-13-8
6473-33-2
6505-96-0
65321-67-7
6548-30-7
65996-82-9
6625-46-3
6739-62-4
6771-80-8
68186-89-0
68391-30-0
68610-24-2
71111-08-5
72-57-1
730-40-5
74-96-4
75-26-3
8004-55-5
8005-78-5
8006-06-2
81-88-9
82-28-0
823-40-5
823-40-5
838-88-0
842-07-9
85136-74-9
87-62-7
89157-03-9
90-04-0
90-41-5
91-59-8
91-94-1
91-95-2
92-67-1
92-87-5
93050-79-4
93912-64-2
95-53-4
95-68-1
95-69-2
95-80-7
97-56-3
992-59-6
99-55-8
123333-56-2
100-01-6
EnglishA First European Scale Multimedia Fate Modelling Of BDE-209 From 1970 To 2020.Earnshaw, M. R., Jones, K. C., & Sweetman, A. J. (2015). A First European Scale Multimedia Fate Modelling Of BDE-209 From 1970 To 2020. Environment International , 74, 71-81. Analytical methodsEnvironment International2015The European Variant Berkeley Trent (EVn-BETR) multimedia fugacity model is used to test the validity of previously derived emission estimates and predict environmental concentrations of the main decabromodiphenyl ether congener, BDE-209. The results are presented here and compared with measured environmental data from the literature. Future multimedia concentration trends are predicted using three emission scenarios (Low, Realistic and High) in the dynamic unsteady state mode covering the period 1970–2020. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions are evaluated. It is predicted that BDE-209 atmospheric concentrations peaked in 2004 and will decline to negligible levels by 2025. Freshwater concentrations should have peaked in 2011, one year after the emissions peak with sediment concentrations peaking in 2013. Predicted atmospheric concentrations are in good agreement with measured data for the Realistic (best estimate of emissions) and High (worst case scenario) emission scenarios. The Low emission scenario consistently underestimates measured data. The German unilateral ban on the use of DecaBDE in the textile industry is simulated in an additional scenario, the effects of which are mainly observed within Germany with only a small effect on the surrounding areas. Overall, the EVn-BTER model predicts atmospheric concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 5 and 1.2 for the Realistic and High emission scenarios respectively, providing partial validation for the original emission estimate. Total mean MEC:PEC shows the High emission scenario predicts the best fit between air, freshwater and sediment data. An alternative spatial distribution of emissions is tested, based on higher consumption in EBFRIP member states, resulting in improved agreement between MECs and PECs in comparison with the Uniform spatial distribution based on population density. Despite good agreement between modelled and measured point data, more long-term monitoring datasets are needed to compare predicted trends in concentration to determine the rate of change of POPs within the environment.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014002852Flame Retardants1163-19-5
EnglishComprehensive Characterisation Of Flame Retardants In Textile Furnishings By Ambient High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry And Environmental Forensic Microscopy.Ionas, A. C., Ballesteros Gómez, A., Uchida, N., Suzuki, G., Kajiwara, N., Takata, K., Et Al. (2015). Comprehensive Characterisation Of Flame Retardants In Textile Furnishings By Ambient High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry And Environmental Forensic Microscopy. Environmental Research , 142, 712-719. Analytical methodsEnvironmental Research2015The presence and levels of flame retardants (FRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), was determined in textile home furnishings, such as carpets and curtains from stores in Belgium. A comprehensive characterisation of FRs in textile was done by ambient high resolution mass spectrometry (qualitative screening), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (quantitation), and environmental forensic microscopy (surface distribution). Ambient ionisation coupled to a time-of-flight (TOF) high resolution mass spectrometer (direct probe-TOF-MS) was investigated for the rapid screening of FRs. Direct probe-TOF-MS proved to be useful for a first screening step of textiles to detect FRs below the levels required to impart flame retardancy and to reduce, in this way, the number of samples for further quantitative analysis. Samples were analysed by GC-MS to confirm the results obtained by ambient mass spectrometry and to obtain quantitative information. The levels of PBDEs and PFRs were typically too low to impart flame retardancy. Only high levels of BDE-209 (11–18% by weight) were discovered and investigated in localised hotspots by employing forensic microscopy techniques. Most of the samples were made of polymeric materials known to be inherently flame retarded to some extent, so it is likely that other alternative and halogen-free FR treatments/solutions are preferred for the textiles on the Belgian market.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300815Flame Retardants1163-19-5, 49690-94-0, 40088-47-9, 32534-81-9, 36483-60-0, 68928-80-3, 32536-52-0, 63936-56-1, 1163-19-5; 37853-59-1; 3278-89-5; 99717-56-3; 35109-60-5; 51936-55-1; 134237-50-6; 134237-51-7;
134237-52-8; 25637-99-4;
3194-55-6; 183658-27-7; 84852-53-9; 126-73-8; 115-96-8; 13674-84-5; 78-43-3; 13674-87-8; 115-86-6; 1241-94-7; 78-42-2; 78-51-3; 1330-78-5; 38051-10-4; 57583-54-7; 5945-33-5

EnglishCertification Of The Mass Fractions Of Various Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbdes), Decabrominated Biphenyl And Total Br And Total Sb In Two Polymer Reference MaterialsLinsinger, T., Birgersson-Liebich, A., Pellizzato, F., Venelinov, T., Voorspoels, S., & Lamberty, A. (2009). Certification Of The Mass Fractions Of Various Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbdes), Decabrominated Biphenyl And Total Br And Total Sb In Two Polymer Reference Materials, ERM-EC590 And ERM-EC591. Opoce.Analytical methodsInstitutional2009This report describes the preparation and certification of the polymer certified reference materials (CRM) ERM-EC590 and ERM-EC591. The CRMs have been certified by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium. The CRMs were prepared from a low-density polyethylene granulate and polypropylene granulate spiked with technical mixtures of brominated diphenylethers (BDEs) and brominated biphenyls (BB). Technical Penta-BDE, Deca-BDE and Deca-BB were added. Certification of the CRM included testing of the homogeneity and stability of the material as well as the characterisation using an intercomparison approach. The CRMs have been certified for their content of Br as well as for several BDE congeners and decabrominated biphenyl (BB-209). Indicative values have been established for Sb. Additional information about several BDE-congeners is given. These CRMs are intended for use in quality assurance of measurements of BDEs. BB-209 and elements in polymers and related matrices. Uncertainties are expanded uncertainties estimated in accordance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) with a coverage factor of k=2, corresponding to a level of confidence of about 95 %.https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/certification-mass-fractions-various-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-decabrominatedFlame Retardants101-55-3; 1163-19-5, 49690-94-0, 40088-47-9, 32534-81-9, 36483-60-0, 68928-80-3, 32536-52-0, 63936-56-1, 1163-19-5
EnglishAnalysis Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers In Textiles Treated By Brominated Flame Retardants.Shin, J. H., & Baek, Y. J. (2012). Analysis Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers In Textiles Treated By Brominated Flame Retardants. Textile Research Journal , 82(13), 1307-1316. Analytical methodsTextile Research Journal2012Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been widely used as additives or as chemical reactants in polymers and textiles. The aim of this study was to develop methods for the analysis of synthesized polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in textiles. Analytical methods for the determination of PBDEs in textile samples were performed, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS, and high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The experiments consisted of three different sub-experiments that centered on detecting the presence of deca-BDE in textiles by (1) GC/MS, (2) TD-GC/MS, and by (3) target molecule analysis of 27 PBDE congeners by HRGC/HRMS. Results indicated that deca-BDE detection by TD-GCMS was the most precise methodology and did not require extraction or cleanup procedures. The analyses of the 27 PBDE congeners were used for the HRGC-isotope dilution HRMS by EPA method 1614. TD-GC/MS with pyrolysis was the most effective method for monitoring of deca-BDE in textiles because of its simplicity. HRGC/HRMS analysis was the most appropriate method for determination of low concentrations of deca-BDE in textiles compared with the other analytical methods. GC/MS analysis may also be used but high-concentration samples are needed for detection. BDE-28, -66, -100, -119, -153, -197, -206, and -209 were detected in all textile samples by the HRGC/HRMS method, of which the concentration of BDE-209 was the highest. BDE-3, -7, -47, -49, -71, -99, -126, and -156 were not detected in any textile samples.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0040517512439943Flame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
32534-81-9
32536-52-0
36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3
EnglishOccurrence of halogenated contaminants in inland and coastal fish from Ghana: Levels, dietary exposure assessment and human health implicationsAsante, K. A., Takahashi, S., Itai, T., Isobe, T., Devanathan, G., Muto, M., et al. (2013). Occurrence of halogenated contaminants in inland and coastal fish from Ghana: Levels, dietary exposure assessment and human health implications. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 94, 123-130. ToxicityEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety2013Fish consumption is known to have several health benefits for humans. However, the accumulation of toxic contaminants, such as PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in fish could pose health hazards. These contaminants were measured in tilapia fish species collected from Ghana. Mean levels were PCBs (62 ng/g lw), PBDEs (7.3 ng/g lw) and HBCDs (1.2 ng/g lw) and the predominance of CB-153, CB-138, CB-180, BDE-47 and α-HBCD is in concordance with scientific literature. The congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in the fish suggest that sources of Penta- and Deca-BDE technical mixtures as well as technical PCB mixture (Clophen A60) exist in Ghana, while textile operations and associated release of untreated wastewater are likely to be significant sources of HBCDs. Comparison of the results with some reported studies showed moderate contamination in Ghana although Ghana is a developing country in Africa. Concentrations of PCBs measured in all the specimens in this study were below the food safety guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration, USA and the European Commission. The calculated hazard index levels of the target contaminants were below the threshold value of one, indicating that the levels of the target contaminants do not seem to constitute a health risk via fish consumption, with regard to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs, based on the limited number of samples that was accounted for in this study. However, due to the continuous discharge of untreated effluents, follow up studies are warranted as the consumption of fish is the primary route of human exposure to PCBs. This maiden report on the status of PBDEs and HBCDs in fish from Ghana will contribute to the knowledge about environmental contamination by POPs in a less industrialized region of the world so far sparsely covered in the literature.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651313001802?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
32534-81-9
32536-52-0
36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3; 5436-43-1;
134237-50-6
134237-51-7
134237-52-8
25637-99-4
3194-55-6
EnglishHistopathological effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in the gills, intestine and liver of turbot (psetta maxima).Barja-Fernández, S., Míguez, J. M., & Álvarez-Otero, R. (2013). Histopathological effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in the gills, intestine and liver of turbot (psetta maxima). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 95, 60-68. ToxicityEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety2013Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants because of their widespread use as flame retardants in various consumer products (plastics, textiles, electronic appliances and building materials) and their long half-life. BDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) is the major PBDE congener detected in the environment and in animal tissues. In the present study, the histopathological effects are examined of BDE-47 on the gills, intestine and liver tissues of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima).The specimens were exposed to two concentrations of BDE-47 (0.03 and 0.3 µg/L) for a period of 15 days. The histological changes were detected microscopically and evaluated with quantitative or semi-quantitative analyses. At the doses of BDE-47 assayed, the most common gill injuries were lamellar fusion, blood congestion and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the epithelial and mucous cells. In the intestine of fish exposed to BDE-47, the alterations detected were hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Hepatic lesions in the liver of fish exposed to BDE-47 were characterized by circulatory disturbances, irregular morphology of hepatocytes, cellular and nuclear hypertrophy, and nuclear vacuolation and pyknosis. As BDE-47 is present in food and other material related to aquaculture systems, our results indicate that exposure to this pollutant could have serious consequences on health in turbot and other cultured fish.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651313002194?via%3DihubFlame Retardants5436-43-1
English Legacy and novel brominated flame retardants in interior car dust – Implications for human exposure. Besis, A., Christia, C., Poma, G., Covaci, A., & Samara, C. (2017). Legacy and novel brominated flame retardants in interior car dust – Implications for human exposure. Environmental Pollution , 230, 871-881. ToxicityEnvironmental Pollution2017Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are organobromine compounds with an inhibitory effect on combustion chemistry tending to reduce the flammability of products. Concerns about health effects and environmental threats have led to phase-out or restrictions in the use of Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDE technical formulations, increasing the demand for Novel BFRs (NBFRs) as replacements for the banned formulations. This study examined the occurrence of legacy and NBFRs in the dust from the interior of private cars in Thessaloniki, Greece, aged from 1 to 19 years with variable origin and characteristics. The determinants included 20 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) (Di-to Deca-BDEs), four NBFRs such as Decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), three isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The concentrations of ∑20PBDE ranged from 132 to 54,666 ng g-1 being dominated by BDE-209. The concentrations of ∑4NBFRs ranged from 48 to 7626 ng g-1 and were dominated by DBDPE, the major substitute of BDE-209. HBCDs ranged between <5 and 1745 ng g-1, with alpha-HBCD being the most prevalent isomer Finally, the concentrations of TBBPA varied from <10 to 1064 ng g-1. The concentration levels and composition profiles of BFRs were investigated in relation to the characteristics of cars, such as year of manufacture, country of origin, and interior equipment (type of car seats, electronic and electrical components, ventilation, etc.). The average daily intakes of selected BFRs (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-209, TBB, BTBPE, TBPH, DBDPE, HBCDs and TBBPA) via ingestion and dermal absorption were estimated for adults and toddlers. The potential health risk due to BFRs was found to be several orders of magnitude lower than their corresponding reference dose (RfD) values.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117317803?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
32534-81-9
32536-52-0
36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3; 5436-43-1; 134237-50-6
134237-51-7
134237-52-8
25637-99-4
3194-55-6
79-94-7
EnglishEffects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on rat and human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 activities.Chen, X., Dong, Y., Cao, S., Li, X., Wang, Z., Chen, R., et al. (2016). Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on rat and human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 activities. Pharmacology, 98(3-4), 115-123. ToxicityPharmacology2016Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants. PBDEs have been widely used in textiles, flexible polyurethane foams, electronic components, electrical components, and plastics. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, isoform 1 (HSD11B1) and isoform 2 (HSD11B2), have been demonstrated to be the regulators of local glucocorticoid levels. In this study, the potencies of 4 different PBDEs (BDE-3, BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153) with 1-6 bromine atoms attached in inhibition of rat and human HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 activities were compared to 4-bromobiphenyl (BBP), a structurally similar compound. All 4 PBDEs and BBP did not inhibit rat and human HSD11B1. BDE-3 and BDE-47 potently inhibited rat HSD11B2, and BDE-47 and BDE-153 potently inhibited human HSD11B2, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 12.42, 5.95, 11.97, and 4.41 µmol/l, respectively. All PBDEs noncompetitively inhibited HSD11B2 when a steroid substrate was used. However, PBDEs exerted uncompetitive inhibition when the cofactor NAD+ was used. In conclusion, some PBDEs are selective inhibitors of HSD11B2, possibly causing excessive glucocorticoid action in local tissues.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27198750Flame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
32534-81-9
32536-52-0
36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3; 5436-43-1
EnglishPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River, East China.Gao, Z., Xu, J., Xian, Q., Feng, J., Chen, X., & Yu, H. (2009). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River, East China. Chemosphere , 75(9), 1273-1279. ToxicityChemosphere,2009Sixteen species of aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River including fishes, crabs and shrimps were collected and analyzed for 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners. All the PBDEs congeners except BDE-17 were detectable in the samples indicating that the aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River are widely exposed to these pollutants. The Sigma(12)PBDEs ranged from 3.52 to 603.69 ng/g lipid (0.032-62.69 ng/g wet wt), with a mean of 44.04 ng/g lipid (2.69 ng/g wet wt). The PBDEs levels in the Yangtze River aquatic biota were low to average compared to PBDEs levels in aquatic biota around the world. The predominant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-28, BDE-154, BDE-100 and BDE-153. The proportion of BDE-28 seemed to be relatively high which was different from the result in other studies around the world but consistent with the results in China. The congener pattern of the sample was similar to the pattern in the sediment from the Yangtze River which implies that sediment may be an important PBDEs source for aquatic biota in the lower reach of the Yangtze River. Although the PBDEs levels in aquatic biota this area is comparable to or even lower than that in other areas in China, such as the Pearl River Delta and the Laizhou Bay, the increasing textiles, chemical and electronic industry may bring more and more PBDEs contamination to the Yangtze River Delta. The fact that PBDEs were detectable in all the biota samples from the lower reach of the Yangtze River should be an alarm for increasing risk in the Yangtze River Delta, East China.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653509001167?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
32534-81-9
32536-52-0
36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3; 5436-43-1
EnglishPolybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Virginia freshwater fishes (USA).Hale, R. C., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E. P., Mainor, T. M., Duff, W. H., & Gaylor, M. O. (2001). Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in Virginia freshwater fishes (USA). Environmental Science and Technology, 35(23), 4585-4591. Toxicity Environmental Science and Technology2001Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in fish fillets collected from two large Virginia watersheds. Emphasis was on the tetra- to hexabrominated congeners since these exhibit the greatest bioaccumulation and toxicological potentials. These congeners are dominant constituents of Penta-, a commercial PBDE product used to flame retard polyurethane foam. In 1999, North America accounted for 98% of global Penta- demand. Concentrations of total tetra- to hexabrominated congeners in fillets ranged from <5 to 47 900 μg/kg (lipid basis). BDE-47, one of the two major constituents of Penta-, was detected in 89% of samples and contributed 40−70% of the total PBDEs observed. Concentrations of BDE-99, the second major constituent of the Penta- commercial mixture, were much lower in fish. While some differences in PBDE profiles between fish species were apparent, dominant congeners were consistent with those in surficial sediments from the Virginia sites and recently published data for U.S. air samples. PCB and PBDE concentrations in fish were generally associated. These factors point to exposure from nonpoint sources. Exceptions existed, likely due to inputs from local sources. The Virginia study area has historically served as a center for furniture and textile manufacturing, although polyurethane foam production here has been limited.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es010845qFlame Retardants101-55-3
1163-19-5
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EnglishAssessment of characteristic distribution of PCDD/Fs and BFRs in sludge generated at municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plantsHwang, I. -., Kang, H. -., Lee, I. -., & Oh, J. -. (2012). Assessment of characteristic distribution of PCDD/Fs and BFRs in sludge generated at municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Chemosphere, 88(7), 888-894. ToxicityChemosphere,2012The presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furan (PCDD/Fs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sludge generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) and industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTPs) was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants were in the following ranges: 5.38-7947ngkg(-1)dw (0.02-49.9ngWHO-TEQkg(-1) dw) for 17 PCDD/Fs, 17.5-66761μgkg(-1)dw for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1.55-29604μgkg(-1)dw for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) (α-, β-, and γ-diastereomers), and 4.01-618μgkg(-1)dw for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Generally, the levels of each compound in the sewage-sludge samples were higher than those in the industrial-sludge samples with some exceptions. The characteristic distribution profiles of target compounds were observed for different types of sludge and different sources of wastewater. High-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were dominant in all samples except those from the textile industry. The distribution of the BFRs in industrial-sludge samples varied, whereas that of the BFRs in sewage-sludge samples was consistent. The proportion of penta-BDEs in sewage sludge was higher than that in industrial sludge, even though BDE-209 was the most dominant congener in all the samples. For HBCDs, the distribution of diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) was similar across sludge samples that had the same source of wastewater and treatment processes.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653512004808?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
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49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3; 5436-43-1; 134237-50-6
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134237-52-8
25637-99-4
3194-55-6; 79-94-7
EnglishEnvironmental assessment of PBDEs contamination in the Svitava River, Czech RepublicJarova, K., Koleckarova, A., Kralova, Z., & Vavrova, M. (2016). Environmental assessment of PBDEs contamination in the Svitava River, Czech Republic. Neuroendocrinology Letters , 37, 45-52. ToxicityNeuroendocrinology Letters2016The aim of this study was to assess the contamination level of aquatic ecosystems of the Svitava River, situated in the South Moravian Region (Czech Republic), by residues of selected brominated flame retardants. We isolated and determined seven indicator PBDE congeners in samples of surface water and bottom sediments using optimized analytical methods.

DESIGN:
Samples were collected from eight locations along the river basin, particularly near the larger cities in order to assess their possible impact on the aquatic ecosystems. Isolation of selected analytes was performed using the methods of liquid-liquid extraction and cold extraction. Column chromatography and rotary vacuum evaporation were used for the purification and pre-concentration of extracts. Final identification and quantification were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC/ECD).

RESULTS:
The sum of PBDEs was calculated for individual BDE congeners. Average concentrations of the sum of PBDEs ranged from 56.35 to 614.0 µg.kg-1 of the dry matter in sediment, and concentrations under the detection limits (
CONCLUSIONS:
Monitoring of PBDEs in the environment, especially in the aquatic ecosystem, is a topical issue due to their growing worldwide application as flame retardants in many products of daily use. Results of this study documented not only potential sources of contamination in the most polluted locations, but also confirmed the lasting presence and accumulation of PBDEs in the environment.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28263530Flame Retardants101-55-3
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EnglishEmission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from flame-retardant-treated textiles. Kajiwara, N., & Takigami, H. (2013). Emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from flame-retardant-treated textiles. Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts , 15(10), 1957-1963ToxicityEnvironmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts2013To evaluate the emission behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) added to textile products as flame retardants, we used a small stainless steel container (7 cm i.d. × 5.5 cm height, ca. 210 cm(3)) to conduct emission tests on three upholstery textile samples at temperatures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 °C. The textile samples, which were intended for use in curtain manufacture and had been treated with either technical HBCD or technical DecaBDE, emitted HBCDs and PBDEs, including BDE 209, even at room temperature (20 °C), and the emission rates increased with increasing test temperature. These results indicate that flame-retardant-treated upholstery textiles have the potential to be major sources of brominated flame retardant contamination in indoor air and dust. The HBCD diastereomer emission profiles at the test temperatures of 20 and 40 °C were similar to the profiles of the original textile samples; in contrast, at the higher test temperatures, the proportion of α-HBCD was larger (up to 70% of the total HBCD emission) than in the original samples. At the higher test temperatures, the proportions of di- to hexa-BDEs in the emissions were clearly larger than in the original sample, suggesting that the textile products treated with technical DecaBDE could be a source of environmentally relevant PBDE congeners such as BDE 47, 99, and 100. The emission rates of HBCDs from the textiles were two orders of magnitude higher than those of PBDEs, suggesting that HBCDs volatilize more easily from textile products to the indoor environment than PBDEs.http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2013/EM/c3em00359k#!divAbstractFlame Retardants134237-50-6
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134237-52-8
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3194-55-6; 101-55-3
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68928-80-3; 5436-43-1
EnglishBrominated flame retardants in the european chemicals policy of REACH-regulation and determination in materials. Kemmlein, S., Herzke, D., & Law, R. J. (2009). Brominated flame retardants in the european chemicals policy of REACH-regulation and determination in materials. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(3), 320-333. ToxicityTo be defined2009The EU REACH legislation will require the registration of 30,000 currently marketed chemicals, including the main commercial BFRs in use (Deca-BDE, HBCD and TBBP-A). Much of the data needed for registration are already available, thanks to risk assessments of continued production and use already undertaken in the EU. Within the authorisation, substitution by less hazardous chemicals is encouraged. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of flame-retarded polymers are needed in order that the identity and concentration of the BFRs can be established and compliance with regulations including the RoHS Directive demonstrated. These are reviewed.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967308009813Flame Retardants101-55-3
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68928-80-3; 5436-43-1; 79-94-7; 134237-50-6
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EnglishPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in blood of children in Baden-Württemberg between 2002/03 and 2008/09.Link, B., Gabrio, T., Mann, V., Schilling, B., Maisner, V., König, M., et al. (2012). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in blood of children in Baden-Württemberg between 2002/03 and 2008/09. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health , 215(2), 224-228. ToxicityInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health2012Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are used in high amounts as flame retardants in plastic materials and textiles. Due to their persistence, their accumulation in the food chain and their toxic properties they have been integrated in the human biomonitoring program of the Baden-Württemberg State Health Office since 2002. In repeated cross-sectional studies in winter 2002/03 (n = 162), 2004/05 (n = 194), 2005/06 (n = 411) and 2008/09 (n = 770) blood samples of 9–11-year-old pupils were taken, pooled and analysed for PBDE after extraction and purification by silica gel using HRGC/HRMS. Samples were pooled according to region, gender, and breast feeding. PBDE in the pooled samples ranged from 1.9 to 12.5 ng/g blood fat (sum of all PBDE). Mean concentrations of PBDE, calculated for the four investigation periods, were 6.2 ng/g (2002/03), 5.4 ng/g (2004/05), 7.8 ng/g (2005/06) and 6.7 ng/g (2008/09). While the concentration of the decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) increased, the concentration of other congeners (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183) decreased slightly or remained at the same level. Consistent differences with respect to gender and breast-feeding were not recognizable. Concentrations of PBDE in children range on the same level as in adults and do not seem to be critical from the toxicological point of view. Because of the slight increase of BDE 209, the internal concentrations of BDE should be monitored in the future. The strong variations in PBDE concentration between the different pooled samples indicate that, apart from ingestion, other routes of exposure (dermal, inhalation) and additional sources (textiles, building materials) must be taken into consideration.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463911002227Flame Retardants101-55-3
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EnglishFrom clothing to laundry water: Investigating the fate of phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.Saini, A., Thaysen, C., Jantunen, L., McQueen, R. H., & Diamond, M. L. (2016). From clothing to laundry water: Investigating the fate of phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters. Environmental Science and Technology , 50(17), 9289-9297. ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2016The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm2∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm2 ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm2 ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW < 4), < 50% of OPEs with an aromatic structure, 50–100% of low molecular weight phthalates (log KOW 4–6), and < detection–35% of higher molecular weight phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b02038Flame Retardants134237-50-6
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134237-52-8
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3194-55-6
101-55-3
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36483-60-0
40088-47-9
49690-94-0
53563-56-7
63936-56-1
68928-80-3
5436-43-1
10043-35-3
115-86-6
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21850-44-2
23488-38-2
31780-26-4
3278-89-5
3296-90-0
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37853-59-1
38051-10-4
39569-21-6
51936-55-1
5412-25-9
545-55-1
57583-54-7
5945-33-5
59536-65-1
615-58-7
61788-33-8
632-79-1
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78-43-3
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79-94-7
84852-53-9
99717-56-3
English A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants - particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers.Sjödin, A., Patterson Jr., D. G., & Bergman Åke, Å. (2003). A review on human exposure to brominated flame retardants - particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environment International , 29(6), 829-839. Toxicity Environment International,2003Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been and are still heavily used as additive or reactive chemicals in polymers and textiles. Only a few of the BFRs have been assessed in human subjects with a major data set on internal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Increasing PBDE levels have been observed in mothers' milk from Sweden as well as in blood from Germany and Norway. The levels are in general lower than PCB levels. However, the PBDE concentrations found in the North Americans are considerably higher compared to European subjects. The PBDEs are dominated by 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is reported both in the general population and in occupationally exposed persons showing the bioavailability of this high molecular weight compound. While the lower and medium brominated diphenyl ethers are persistent, BDE-209 has a fairly short half-life of approximately 2 weeks. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is readily eliminated in humans showing a half-life of about 2 days. Still, TBBPA is accumulated in humans but a continuous exposure to this BFR is required to maintain a certain level in the human subject. TBBPA has not been detected in the general population but in people exposed at work. The current review addresses human exposure routes and levels of BFRs.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412003001089?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
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EnglishDecabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) and/or BDE-47 exposure alters protein expression in purified neural stem/progenitor cells determined by proteomics analysis. Song, J., Li, Z. -., He, Y. -., Liu, C. -., Sun, B., Zhang, C. -., et al. (2014). Decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) and/or BDE-47 exposure alters protein expression in purified neural stem/progenitor cells determined by proteomics analysis. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience , 33(1), 8-14. Toxicity International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience2014Polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely utilized as the additive brominated flame retardants in electronic devices, furniture, plastics, rubber foam, and textiles, which exhibit many negative biological effects, especially potential toxic effects on neurodevelopment. In the present study, we applied a proteomics approach to study the effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and/or tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on the expression of proteins extracted from neural stem/progenitor cells and further explored mechanisms on neurodevelopmental toxicity. We sub-cultured 3-4 generations of neural stem/progenitor cells which were exposed to BDE-209 and/or BDE-47. After a 72-h exposure, we applied two-dimensional gel (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to determine the protein identity of 25 spots. Western blot analysis was applied to determine the expression of cofilin-1 and vimentin. A total of 39 differential expression protein spots were identified by 2-DE after BDE-209 and/or BDE-47 exposure in the neural stem/progenitor cells, and 19 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Western blot analysis revealed that cofilin-1 and vimentin were differentially expressed in all groups. Expression of both proteins was decreased when the neural stem/progenitor cells were exposed to BDE-209 and were absent when exposed to both BDE-47 and BDE-209. BDE-209 and/or BDE-47 might alter the expression of some proteins of neural stem/progenitor cells. Nineteen proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, which will provide a useful basis for further study of the mechanisms underlying PBDE-mediated neurotoxicity.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736574813001482?via%3DihubFlame Retardants101-55-3
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English In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture.Stoker, T. E., Cooper, R. L., Lambright, C. S., Wilson, V. S., Furr, J., & Gray, L. E. (2005). In vivo and in vitro anti-androgenic effects of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 207(1), 78-88. ToxicityPharmacology,2005PBDEs have been synthesized in large quantities as flame retardants for commercial products, such as electronic equipment and textiles. The rising in levels of PBDEs in tissues in wildlife species and in human milk and plasma samples over the past several years have raised concerns about possible health effects. Recently, we showed that the PBDE mixture, DE-71, delayed puberty and suppressed the growth of androgen-dependent tissues in male Wistar rat following a peri-pubertal exposure. These effects suggested that DE-71 may be either inducing steroid hormone metabolism or acting as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. To elucidate the potential anti-androgenic effects of this mixture, we evaluated DE-71 in several in vivo assays, which are responsive to alterations in androgen activity. In a pubertal exposure study designed to further evaluate the delay in preputial separation (PPS), we observed a dose-dependent delay in PPS with 60 and 120 mg/kg/day of DE-71 (4 and 5 days) and a corresponding suppression of ventral prostate (VP) and seminal vesicle growth at both doses. Adult males exposed to 60 mg/kg DE-71 for 3 days resulted in a significant increase in luteinizing hormone and a non-significant increase in testosterone, androstenedione and estrone. DE-71 also tested positive for anti-androgenic activity in an immature rat Hershberger assay, with decreases in mean VP and seminal vesicle weight following doses of 30–240 mg/kg. DE-71 and the individual BDE congeners which comprise the mixture (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154) were also evaluated in vitro. First, AR binding was evaluated in a competitive binding assay using rat VP cytosol. In addition, we evaluated gene activation in a transcriptional activation assay using the MDA-kb2 cell line which contains an endogenous human AR and a transfected luciferase reporter. DE-71 and BDE-100 (2, 4, 6-pentaBDE) both inhibited AR binding, with IC50s of approximately 5 μM. In addition, DE-71 and two of the congeners (BDE-100 and BDE-47) inhibited DHT-induced transcriptional activation. The pattern of inhibition shown in the double-reciprocal plot for BDE-100 and the linear slope replot confirmed that the in vitro mechanism is pure competitive inhibition, with a inhibition constant (Ki) of 1 μM. The delay in puberty in the male rat and decreased growth of androgen-dependent tissues observed previously following exposure to DE-71 were likely due to this inhibition of AR binding by several of the congeners which make up this mixture.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X05002243Flame Retardants101-55-3
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EnglishCell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes.Park, M. -., Hwang, K. -., Lee, H. -., Yi, B. -., Jeung, E. -., & Choi, K. -. (2012). Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes. Molecular Medicine Reports , 5(3), 761-766. ToxicityMolecular Medicine Reports2012Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmentally persistent exogenous compounds released from various industrial products such as plastics, pesticides, drugs, detergents and cosmetics. They can cause a variety of adverse effects to the reproductive, developmental, immune and nervous systems in humans and wildlife. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is the main compound of phthalates and is reported to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression and to interfere with normal fetal development of the male reproductive system. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is one of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have been widely used in plastic, electronic and textile applications and are known to cause endocrine disruption with toxicity of the nervous system. In the present study, the estrogenic effects of DBP and HBCD were examined in an ovarian cancer cell line, BG-1, expressing high levels of ER via MTT assay and semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Treatment with DBP (10(-8)-10(-5) M) or HBCD (2 x 10(-8) -2 x 10(-6) M) resulted in increased cell proliferation of BG-1 cells as observed with 17-β estradiol (E2). In addition, both DBP and HBCD upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle-regulatory genes, such as cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (cdk-4), which are downstream target genes of ER, at 6 h after treatment. However, the expression of the p21 gene was not altered by DBP or HBCD at any time as with E2. Taken together, these results suggest that DBP and HBCD are EDCs which have apparent estrogenic activities by stimulating the cell proliferation of BG-1 cells and by inducing the expression of cyclin D and cdk-4. Our results suggest that DBP and HBCD have sufficient potency to disrupt the endocrine system and to stimulate cell growth in ER-positive cancer cells.https://www.spandidos-publications.com/mmr/5/3/761Flame Retardants134237-50-6
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EnglishBrominated flame retardants in textile wastewater: Reducing deca-BDE using best available techniques.Derden, A., & Huybrechts, D. (2013). Brominated flame retardants in textile wastewater: Reducing deca-BDE using best available techniques. Journal of Cleaner Production , 53, 167-175. Anti-pollution systems Journal of Cleaner Production2013Decabromodiphenyl ether is a brominated flame retardant used in a variety of applications, including finishing processes in the textile industry. The purpose of this paper is to determine the best available techniques for reducing decabromodiphenyl ether emissions from the textile industry via its wastewater, for example sending wastewater containing Deca-BDE to an external specialised waste processing plant, and to determine the emission levels associated with the best available techniques: <20 μg/l as a 24 h average for the Flemish textile industry. The importance of keeping the best available techniques up-to-date and possible bottlenecks for determining the emissions levels associated with the best available techniques, in view of the revision of the reference document on best available techniques for the textiles industry under the Directive on Industrial Emissions, are also discussed in this paper.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095965261300214XFlame Retardants1163-19-5
EnglishKinetics of thermal and photolytic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) in backcoated textile samples.Ghanem, R., & Delmani, F. -. (2012). Kinetics of thermal and photolytic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) in backcoated textile samples. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis , 98, 79-85.Anti-pollution systemsJournal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis2012Kinetics of the thermal and photolytic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBE 209) was studied using HPLC. Samples lost an amount of ∼8.4% (w/w), 24% (w/w), 39.4% (w/w) and 28.5% of the amount of DBE 209 originally present in the samples due to ageing at 25, 60, 90 °C and UV exposure, respectively. The thermal and photolytic release was found to follow the first order kinetics with rate constants estimated to be 3.6 × 10−3, 1.03 × 10−2, 3.6 × 10−2 and 3.94 × 10−2 day−1, respectively. Ageing of the textile samples enhanced the release of the DBE 209 from the backcoated textile. Photodegradation of BDE 209 into lower congeners of brominated flame retardants was also observed for the UV-aged samples.

Migration of DBE 209 from the backcoated textile into biological fluids was studied using Head-over-Heels and contact-Blotting test for unaged, thermally and UV aged samples. The presence of biological fluids (sweat, saliva and juice) was found to enhance the migration of DBE 209 compared to water. Migration of BDE 209 into artificial biological fluids is significantly increased for samples previously exposed to UV radiation or thermally aged. An increase from 0.6% (w/w) to a maximum of 2% (w/w) of the amount of BDE 209 migrated into artificial biological fluids due to ageing conditions in the presence of biological fluid was recorded.

Highlights
► Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBE 209) leaches from the backcoated textile due to thermal or UV exposure. ► Samples lost ∼25.1% (w/w) of the amount of DBE 209 originally present in the samples due to ageing. ► Ageing of the textile samples enhanced the release of the DBE 209 from the backcoated textile. ► Formation of lower congeners of brominated flame retardants was observed for the UV-aged samples. ► Presence of biological fluids enhances the migration of DBE 209 compared to water.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165237012001659Flame Retardants1163-19-5
English Rapid detection of hazardous chemicals in textiles by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS).Antal, B., Kuki, Á., Nagy, L., Nagy, T., Zsuga, M., & Kéki, S. (2016). Rapid detection of hazardous chemicals in textiles by direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry , 408(19), 5189-5198. Analytical methodsAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry2016Residues of chemicals on clothing products were examined by direct analysis in real-time (DART) mass spectrometry. Our experiments have revealed the presence of more than 40 chemicals in 15 different clothing items. The identification was confirmed by DART tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for 14 compounds. The most commonly detected hazardous substances were nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs), phthalic acid esters (phthalates), amines released by azo dyes, and quinoline derivates. DART-MS was able to detect NPEs on the skin of the person wearing the clothing item contaminated by NPE residuals. Automated data acquisition and processing method was developed and tested for the recognition of NPE residues thereby reducing the analysis time.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00216-016-9603-zPhtalates84-66-2; 84-74-2; 117-81-7; 28553-12-0; 68515-48-0;
GermanDetermination of phthalic acid esters in foodstuffs, mother's milk, dust, and textiles (research article). [Bestimmung von phthalsaureestern in lebensmitteln, frauenmilch, hausstaub und textilien] Bruns-Weller, E., & Pfordt, J. (2000). Determination of phthalic acid esters in foodstuffs, mother's milk, dust, and textiles (research article). [Bestimmung von phthalsaureestern in lebensmitteln, frauenmilch, hausstaub und textilien] Umweltwissenschaften Und Schadstoff-Forschung , 12(3), 125-130. Analytical methodsUmweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung200025 food samples, 5 mother's milk specimens, 4 dust samples, and 16 textiles were analysed for phthalic acid esters. Phthalic acid esters were detected in all samples, with di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) being the most abundant phthalates. Raw milk samples revealed average concentrations of total phthalate of 0.1 mg/kg. Retail milk did not contain higher loads than raw milk, even storing samples until their 'best-before' date did not result in elevated levels. Skimmed milk was less contaminated than whole milk. The higher concentrations of DEHP and total phthalates in cream samples are due to their higher fat content. With concentrations up to 1.54 mg/kg, ground hazelnuts, almonds, and nutmeg in plastic packagings showed relatively high levels. Ininfant food, only traces of DEHP and DBP could be found while other phthalic acid esters were not detectable. The mother's milk samples also exhibited only low amounts of approx. 0.1 mg/kg, thus indicating that there is no accumulation of phthalate esters in the human body. Extraordinarily high concentrations were found in dust samples; with the levels ranging from 300 to 5370 mg/kg and DEHP being the major compound. This leads to the conclusion that the air path must play a considerable role in the transfer of phthalic acid esters. As dust contains considerable amounts of textile fibres, textiles were also included in the investigation. The phthalic ester levels in the textile samples ranged from 3.42 to 34.44 mg/kg. Therefore, the high phthalate contaminations of dust cannot be explained by textile fibres.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03038049Phtalates117-81-7
117-82-8
117-84-0
131-11-3
131-16-8
131-18-0
26761-40-0
27554-26-3
28553-12-0
605-50-5
68515-42-4
68515-48-0
68515-49-1
68515-50-4
68515-51-5
68648-93-1
71850-09-4
71888-89-6
776297-69-9
84-61-7
84-66-2
84-69-5
84-74-2
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85-68-7 26040-51-7;
English Oil and flour of cannabis sativa L. multiscreening analysis of mycotoxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and pesticide residues. [Olio e farina da Cannabis sativa L. analisi multiscreening di micotossine, ftalati, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici, metalli e fitofarmaci].Fusari, P., Rovellini, P., Folegatti, L., Baglio, D., & Cavalieri, A. (2013). Oil and flour of cannabis sativa L. multiscreening analysis of mycotoxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and pesticide residues. [Olio e farina da Cannabis sativa L. analisi multiscreening di micotossine, ftalati, idrocarburi policiclici aromatici, metalli e fitofarmaci]. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse , 90(1), 9-19. Analytical methodsRivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse2013This paper describes the application of multiscreening methods aimed to the determination of mycotoxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and phytoresidues in oil and flour obtained from Cannabis sativa L This plant is cultivated for textile fiber production and extraction of oil from seeds and is used in food and folk medicinal preparations for its positive health benefits, including lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure. Moreover, due to the high content of polyunsaturated compounds, hemp seed oil has been used for printer's ink, wood preservative and also for detergents and soaps. The multiscreening analysis regarding mycotoxins (aflatoxin B 1, B2, G1, G2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on oil and flour were negative for all components. The analysis of the main phthalates, used in plastic production, showed a fairly high content of diethylhexylphthalate in hemp oil, probably due to the type of packaging in which the sample was stored. The analysis of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, arsenic and chromium) and some metals from industrial processes (iron, copper and phosphorus) in the oil found no presence for the former and only few amounts of iron, copper and phosphorus. The hemp flour is instead found to be a potential source of micronutrients, such as iron, manganese and zinc, useful in human and animal nutrition, in addition to a high amount of phosphorus highly available, while the concentrations of the toxic metal compounds were below the limit of detection of the analytical methods. Execution of multiscreening analysis for pesticides revealed positive results for certain residues on oil, flour, and oil extracted from the flour, even if at low concentrations.

Oil and flour of Cannabis sativa L. multiscreening analysis of mycotoxins, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and pesticide residues (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279447097_Oil_and_flour_of_Cannabis_sativa_L_multiscreening_analysis_of_mycotoxins_phthalates_polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbons_metals_and_pesticide_residues [accessed Dec 19 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279447097_Oil_and_flour_of_Cannabis_sativa_L_multiscreening_analysis_of_mycotoxins_phthalates_polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbons_metals_and_pesticide_residuesPhtalates117-81-7
117-82-8
117-84-0
131-11-3
131-16-8
131-18-0
26761-40-0
27554-26-3
28553-12-0
605-50-5
68515-42-4
68515-48-0
68515-49-1
68515-50-4
68515-51-5
68648-93-1
71850-09-4
71888-89-6
776297-69-9
84-61-7
84-66-2
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English Trace analysis of persistent toxic substances in the main stream of jiangsu section of the yangtze river, ChinaHe, H., Hu, G. -., Sun, C., Chen, S. -., Yang, M. -., Li, J., et al. (2011). Trace analysis of persistent toxic substances in the main stream of jiangsu section of the yangtze river, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 18(4), 638-648. Analytical methodsEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2011The Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River is the downstream of the whole river, serving as an important drinking water source. Persistent toxic substances (PTS), from the industries such as automobile, textile, chemical, and electronic production, are not listed in the National Standard yet and not monitored and controlled. However, pollution of PTS can threaten the environment and human health. In order to understand the pollution status of the PTS contamination and recommend future rationalization of countermeasure, the PTS including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs) were investigated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Samples were collected at 15 sites from five main stream sections of the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province. PTS were extracted using solid phase extract method. The analysis of OCPs, PCBs was performed using GC/ECD and PAHs, PAEs was performed by GC/MS.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:
The method detection limits are low and the recoveries are from 58.1% to 110.3%. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, PAHs, and PAEs were 0.27∼2.15 ng l(-1), <0.21∼44.4 ng l(-1), 0.012∼3.576 μg l(-1) and 0.178∼1.474 μg l(-1), respectively. γ-HCH, PCB28, PCB101, phenanthrene, anthracene, di-n-butyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are the major detected PTS. The concentration of most of the PTS was below the environmental quality standards for surface water of China.

CONCLUSIONS:
The pollution status of OCPs, PCBs, PAHs, and PAEs were analyzed. PTS contamination levels of the five main stream sections were relatively low.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-010-0414-zPhtalates117-81-7
117-82-8
117-84-0
131-11-3
131-16-8
131-18-0
26761-40-0
27554-26-3
28553-12-0
605-50-5
68515-42-4
68515-48-0
68515-49-1
68515-50-4
68515-51-5
68648-93-1
71850-09-4
71888-89-6
776297-69-9
84-61-7
84-66-2
84-69-5
84-74-2
84-75-3
84-76-4
84777-06-0
85-44-9
85-68-7 26040-51-7;
Chinese Determination of fhthalic acid esters in textiles by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography.Niu, Z., Ye, X., Fang, L., Xue, Q., & Sun, Z. (2006). Determination of fhthalic acid esters in textiles by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography. Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu), 24(5), 503-507. Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu)2006A method was established for the simultaneous determination of some phthalic acid esters, namely, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dipropyl phthalate (DPrP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diamyl phthalate (DAP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), benzyln-butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in textiles by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). The phthalic acid esters in textiles were extracted by Soxhlet extraction with hexane, the extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by a strong anion exchange (SAX) SPE cartridge. The parameters affecting the purification efficiency of SPE cartridge, such as solvent conditioning, rinsing, and elution, were studied. Conditioning with 5 mL hexane and rinsing with 3 mL isooctane were proved to be the optimal conditions. Of the several solvent ratios (ethylacetate in hexane) used for selective elution of phthalic acid esters from the SAX SPE cartridge, the 15% (v/v) content for ethylacetate in hexane gave the best result. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of phthalic acid esters for spiked standards (n=7) were 86.3%-102.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5%. In this method the detection limits for DMP, DEP, DPrP, DBP, DAP, BBP, DCHP, DEHP, DNOP were all below 1 mg/kg, and the detection limits for DINP and DIDP were 1.74 mg/kg and 1.55 mg/kg respectively. This SPE-GC method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the analysis of phthalate environmental hormones in textiles.

Determination of fhthalic acid esters in textiles by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6633528_Determination_of_fhthalic_acid_esters_in_textiles_by_solid_phase_extraction-gas_chromatography [accessed Dec 19 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6633528_Determination_of_fhthalic_acid_esters_in_textiles_by_solid_phase_extraction-gas_chromatographyPhtalates131-11-3; 84-66-2; 131-16-8; 84-74-2; 68515-50-4 ; 84-75-3
EnglishPyrolysis and char characterization of refuse-derived fuel components.Silva, R. B., Martins-Dias, S., Arnal, C., Alzueta, M. U., & Costa, M. (2015). Pyrolysis and char characterization of refuse-derived fuel components. Energy and Fuels , 29(3), 1997-2005. Analytical methodsEnergy and Fuels2015This work concentrates on the pyrolysis and char characterization of a refuse-derived fuel (RDF), produced from municipal solid waste, and five of its components, namely, nonpackaging paper, food, textile, low-density polyethylene film, LDPE, and packaging polypropylene wastes. Specifically, this work characterizes physically and chemically the materials, examines the pyrolysis and oxidation patterns of the RDF and its components using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a quartz reactor (QR), respectively, evaluates the reactivity toward oxygen of selected RDF chars at 650 °C in the QR, and characterizes the trace organics emission during the pyrolysis and chars oxidation in the QR by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) the pyrolysis and oxidation patterns indicate the presence of low-stability organic components, lignocellulosic materials, and plastics but with the maximum rates occurring at lower temperatures than those reported in the literature; (2) the reactivity toward oxygen of chars at 650 °C revealed that the food waste and the LDPE film waste chars are among the less reactive chars, while the textiles waste and the packaging PP waste chars are among the more reactive chars; the RDF char reactivity resembles mostly that of the nonpackaging paper waste char; (3) analyses of the trace organic elements released reflect the transversal contamination of the different materials that compose RDF, derived from its mixed origin. During both pyrolysis and char combustion, phthalates were the most relevant compounds encountered.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef502011fPhtalates27554-26-3; 84-69-5, 84-74-2, 84-66-2
EnglishSolid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from owerri, Nigeria. Arukwe, A., Eggen, T., & Möder, M. (2012). Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from owerri, Nigeria. Science of the Total Environment, 438, 94-102. ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2012In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high μg/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969712011230?via%3DihubPhtalates131-11-3, 84-66-2, 84-74-2, 117-81-7, 131-18-0
EnglishBenzidine-based chemical substances; di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP); and alkanes, C 12-13, chloro; proposed significant new use rules.Benzidine-based chemical substances; di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP); and alkanes, C 12-13, chloro; proposed significant new use rules.(2012). Federal Register, 77(60), 18752-18766. ToxicityInstitutional2012Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA is promulgating a significant new use rule (SNUR) to add nine benzidine-based chemical substances to the existing SNUR on benzidine-based chemical substances. With respect to both the newly-added benzidine-based chemical substances and the previously-listed benzidine-based chemical substances, this rule makes inapplicable the exemption relating to persons that import or process substances as part of an article. EPA is also promulgating a SNUR for di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP) and a SNUR for alkanes, C12-13, chloro. These actions require persons who intend to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) or process these chemical substances for an activity that is designated as a significant new use to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing such manufacture or processing. The required notifications will provide EPA with the opportunity to evaluate activities associated with a significant new use and, if necessary based on the information available at that time, an opportunity to protect against potential unreasonable risks, if any, from that activity before it occurs. EPA is also making a technical amendment to the codified list of control numbers for approved information collection activities so that it includes the control number assigned by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to the information collection activities contained in this rulehttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/12/29/2014-29887/benzidine-based-chemical-substances-di-n-pentyl-phthalate-dnpp-and-alkanes-c12-13-chloro-significantPhtalates131-18-0
PolishThe effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the somatic cells of laboratory mice. [Wplyw ftalanu di-n-butylu (DBP) na komórki somatyczne myszy laboratoryjnych.] Dobrzynska, M. M., Tyrkiel, E. J., Hernik, A., Derezinska, E., Góralczyk, K., & Ludwicki, J. K. (2010). The effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the somatic cells of laboratory mice. [Wplyw ftalanu di-n-butylu (DBP) na komórki somatyczne myszy laboratoryjnych.] Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 61(1), 13-19. ToxicityRoczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny2010 Phthalates are widely used as a plasticizers in manufacture of synthetic materials and as solvents in sanitary products, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is used as a plasticizers and as a textile lubricating agent and as solvent in printing ink. The study aimed the evaluation of the magnitude of DNA damage in liver and bone marrow cells and estimation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) concentration in peripheral blood following prolonged exposure to DBP. Experiments were conducted on the Pzh:Sfis male mice. Animals were exposed 8 weeks, 3 days per week per os to DBP suspension in oil in doses of 500 mg/kg bw (1/16 LD50) and 2000 mg/kg bw (1/4 LD50). Following groups of mice were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after the start of exposure and 4 weeks after the end of exposure. Decreased body weight of mice and statistically significant decreased liver and relative liver weights were observed following 8-weeks exposure to 2000 mg/kg bw DBP. In the same time higher, however not statistically significant level of DNA damage measured by Comet assay in liver cells were noted. DBP did not induce enhanced frequency of DNA damage in bone marrow cells. Following 8-weeks exposure to the dose of 2000 mg/kg bw DBP the increased level of DBP in peripheral blood was observed. Enhanced levels of DBP were still noted 4 weeks after the termination of exposure. Results confirmed that DBP acts as a weak mutagen for DNA of somatic cells. However, following prolonged exposure this compound seems to undergo slower metabolism and was reaching temporarily higher levels in peripheral blood.http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/20803895Phtalates84-74-2
EnglishImpact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates: Observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing.Gong, M., Weschler, C. J., & Zhang, Y. (2016). Impact of clothing on dermal exposure to phthalates: Observations and insights from sampling both skin and clothing. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(8), 4350-4357. ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2016Clothing can either retard or accelerate dermal exposure to phthalates. To investigate the impact of clothing on dermal exposure to six phthalates (DMP/DEP/DiBP/DnBP/BBzP/DEHP) in real environments, two sets of experiments have been conducted: (1) Skin wipes were collected from 11 adults to examine the phthalate levels on both bare-skin (hand/forehead) and clothing-covered body locations (arm/back/calf); (2) Five adults were asked to wear just-washed jeans for 1 day (1st experiment), 5 days (2nd experiment), and 10 days (3rd experiment). Phthalate levels on their legs were measured on selected days during the wearing period, and phthalate levels in the jeans were measured at the end of each experiment and again after washing. Measured phthalate levels on body locations covered by clothing were lower than those on uncovered locations, but still substantial. Dermal uptake would be underestimated by a factor of 2 to 5 if absorption through body locations covered by clothing were neglected. Phthalate levels in the jeans and on the legs increased with the wearing time. However, the levels in the jeans and on the legs were not strongly correlated, indicating that other pathways, e.g, contact with bedding or bedclothes, likely contribute to the levels on the legs. The efficiency with which laundering washing removed phthalates from the jeans increased with decreasing Kow; median values ranged from very low (<5%) for DEHP to very high (∼75%) for DMP.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b00113Phtalates131-11-3, 84-66-2, 84-69-5, 117-81-7,
EnglishA multicentre review of the footwear allergens tested in the UK. Katugampola, R. P., Statham, B. N., English, J. S. C., Wilkinson, M. M., Foulds, I. S., Green, C. M., et al. (2005). A multicentre review of the footwear allergens tested in the UK. Contact Dermatitis, 53(3), 133-135. ToxicityContact Dermatitis2005Footwear allergens used for patch testing vary between dermatology centres in the UK. The aim of our study is to ascertain the footwear allergens currently in use and their test results in several dermatology centres in the UK. Data were obtained from databases in 9 dermatology departments. A new footwear series consisting of 19 allergens including those with positive results and current/past relevance in this study based on collective experience is proposed for wider use and further evaluation.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00662.x/fullPhtalates27554-26-3
English Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing.Morrison, G., Li, H., Mishra, S., & Buechlein, M. (2015). Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing. Atmospheric Environment , 115, 149-152. ToxicityAtmospheric Environment2015Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015301242Phtalates84-66-2, 84-74-2
English Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results.Morrison, G. C., Weschler, C. J., & Bekö, G. (2017). Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results. Indoor Air, 27(3), 642-649. ToxicityIndoor Air2017In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure. For compounds that have high dermal permeability coefficients, dermal uptake is increased for (i) thinner clothing, (ii) a narrower gap between clothing and skin, and (iii) longer time intervals between laundering and wearing. Enhanced dermal uptake is most pronounced for compounds with clothing–air partition coefficients between 104 and 107. In the absence of direct measurements of cotton cloth–air partition coefficients, dermal exposure may be predicted using equilibrium data for compounds in equilibrium with cellulose and water, in combination with computational methods of predicting partition coefficients.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ina.12354/fullPhtalates84-74-2, 84-66-2
TurkishClothing and child health: What should a child wear, and how should it be laundered? [Giysiler ve çocuk sagligi: Ne giysin? Nasil yikansin?] Örün, E. (2015). Clothing and child health: What should a child wear, and how should it be laundered? [Giysiler ve çocuk sagligi: Ne giysin? Nasil yikansin?] Cocuk Sagligi Ve Hastaliklari Dergis i, 58(1), 43-49. ToxicityCocuk Sagligi Ve Hastaliklari Dergis2015Appropriate clothing is the right of every child. When choosing clothing, the child's health, safety and well-being/comfort should be the foremost considerations. With this in mind, the ideal clothing can be selected by taking into account such factors as fabric, size, fastenings (buttons, zippers, etc.), design and weather conditions. Beyond this, it must be remembered that children are exposed to the substances in their clothing - including the products used in laundering it - both directly (via the skin, or orally by sucking on textiles) and indirectly (inhalation of textile chemicals absorbed in dust particles or pollution of the aquatic environment with chemicals). Currently, some chemicals found in textiles are threatening to children's health: these include dyes, finishing agents, toxic metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and phthalates. In this article, clothing and laundry detergents are considered in relation to child health.

Clothing and child health: What should a child wear, and how should it be laundered? (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309670882_Clothing_and_child_health_What_should_a_child_wear_and_how_should_it_be_laundered [accessed Dec 19 2017].
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309670882_Clothing_and_child_health_What_should_a_child_wear_and_how_should_it_be_launderedPhtalates117-81-7
117-82-8
117-84-0
131-11-3
131-16-8
131-18-0
26761-40-0
27554-26-3
28553-12-0
605-50-5
68515-42-4
68515-48-0
68515-49-1
68515-50-4
68515-51-5
68648-93-1
71850-09-4
71888-89-6
776297-69-9
84-61-7
84-66-2
84-69-5
84-74-2
84-75-3
84-76-4
84777-06-0
85-44-9
85-68-7; 26040-51-7;
EnglishCell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes.Park, M. -., Hwang, K. -., Lee, H. -., Yi, B. -., Jeung, E. -., & Choi, K. -. (2012). Cell growth of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells is promoted by di-n-butyl phthalate and hexabromocyclododecane via upregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 genes. Molecular Medicine Reports, 5(3), 761-766. ToxicityMolecular Medicine Reports2012Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are environmentally persistent exogenous compounds released from various industrial products such as plastics, pesticides, drugs, detergents and cosmetics. They can cause a variety of adverse effects to the reproductive, developmental, immune and nervous systems in humans and wildlife. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is the main compound of phthalates and is reported to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene expression and to interfere with normal fetal development of the male reproductive system. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is one of the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have been widely used in plastic, electronic and textile applications and are known to cause endocrine disruption with toxicity of the nervous system. In the present study, the estrogenic effects of DBP and HBCD were examined in an ovarian cancer cell line, BG-1, expressing high levels of ER via MTT assay and semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Treatment with DBP (10(-8)-10(-5) M) or HBCD (2 x 10(-8) -2 x 10(-6) M) resulted in increased cell proliferation of BG-1 cells as observed with 17-β estradiol (E2). In addition, both DBP and HBCD upregulated the expression levels of cell cycle-regulatory genes, such as cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (cdk-4), which are downstream target genes of ER, at 6 h after treatment. However, the expression of the p21 gene was not altered by DBP or HBCD at any time as with E2. Taken together, these results suggest that DBP and HBCD are EDCs which have apparent estrogenic activities by stimulating the cell proliferation of BG-1 cells and by inducing the expression of cyclin D and cdk-4. Our results suggest that DBP and HBCD have sufficient potency to disrupt the endocrine system and to stimulate cell growth in ER-positive cancer cells.https://www.spandidos-publications.com/mmr/5/3/761Phtalates84-74-2
English Dimethoxyethyl phthalate: Embryopathy, teratogenicity, fetal metabolism and the role of zinc in the rat. Parkhie, M. R., Webb, M., & Norcross, M. A. (1982). Dimethoxyethyl phthalate: Embryopathy, teratogenicity, fetal metabolism and the role of zinc in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives , Vol. 45, 89-97. ToxicityEnvironmental Health Perspectives1982A single intraperitoneal injection (0.6 ml/kg) of dimethoxyethyl phthalate (DMEP) was given to groups of Wistar strain rats on day 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 of gestation. Control rats received 0.6 ml/kg of physiological saline intraperitoneally. In phthalate-treated rats, embryopathy was manifested by a high incidence (12-79%) of fetal deaths and fetal resorptions. Fetotoxic effects were expressed by a significant reduction in fetal weights. Hydrocephalus interna, a congenital malformation of the brain, was caused by DMEP. Congenital skeletal deformities (66-96%), with multiple skeletal (14-64%) and appendicular malformations (25-57%), were also induced by DMEP. Control rats exhibited no congenital malformations of the brain and no appendicular or multiple skeletal deformities. DMEP caused a significant decrease in the zinc content of the fetus. Fetoplacental metabolism 1 and 4 hr after intravenous administration of 14C-DMEP suggested rapid transfer of the parent compound to the fetus across the placenta and that DMEP is a teratogenic moiety. The possible role of zinc in phthalate-induced teratogenesis in rats is also discussed.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7140701Phtalates117-82-8
EnglishFrom clothing to laundry water: Investigating the fate of phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters.Saini, A., Thaysen, C., Jantunen, L., McQueen, R. H., & Diamond, M. L. (2016). From clothing to laundry water: Investigating the fate of phthalates, brominated flame retardants, and organophosphate esters. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(17), 9289-9297. ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2016The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm2∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm2 ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm2 ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW < 4), < 50% of OPEs with an aromatic structure, 50–100% of low molecular weight phthalates (log KOW 4–6), and < detection–35% of higher molecular weight phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b02038Phtalates117-81-7
117-82-8
117-84-0
131-11-3
131-16-8
131-18-0
26761-40-0
27554-26-3
28553-12-0
605-50-5
68515-42-4
68515-48-0
68515-49-1
68515-50-4
68515-51-5
68648-93-1
71850-09-4
71888-89-6
776297-69-9
84-61-7
84-66-2
84-69-5
84-74-2
84-75-3
84-76-4
84777-06-0
85-44-9
85-68-7; 26040-51-7;
EnglishEvaluating endocrine disruption activity of deposits on firefighting gear using a sensitive and high throughput screening method.Stevenson, M., Alexander, B., Stuart Baxter, C., & Leung, Y. -. (2015). Evaluating endocrine disruption activity of deposits on firefighting gear using a sensitive and high throughput screening method. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(12), e153-e157. ToxicityJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2015Adverse health outcomes related to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, including increased incidences of coronary heart disease, prostate and testicular cancers, and congenital disabilities, have been reported in firefighters or their offspring. We, therefore, measured the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of extracts of used firefighter gear to assess exposure to these agents.

METHODS:
Extracts and known chemical contaminants were examined for estrogenicity and antiestrogenicity in yeast cells expressing the estrogen receptor.

RESULTS:
Most extracts of used gear and phthalate diesters detectable on this gear displayed strong antiestrogenic effects. Notably, new glove and hood extracts showed significant estrogenic activity.

CONCLUSIONS:
Overall, our data suggest that firefighters are exposed to both estrogenic and antiestrogenic agents, possibly phthalates that may lead to health risks observed in this occupation as a result of perturbation of hormone homeostasis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672464/Phtalates85-68-7, 117-81-7, 117-84-0
JapaneseDetermination of organotin compounds in plastic products by GC/MS after ethyl derivatization with sodium tetraethylborateOhno, H., Suzuki, M., Nakashima, S., Aoyama, T., & Mitani, K. (2002). Determination of organotin compounds in plastic products by GC/MS after ethyl derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, 43(4), 208-214. 10.3358/shokueishi.43.208Analytical methodsJournal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan2002A simultaneous determination method for 9 organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone products used as kitchen utensils and food packages was developed using ethyl derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4). Organotin compounds were extracted with acetone-hexane (3:7) from the samples after acidification and the extract was filtered and concentrated at under 40°C. After centrifugal separation, these compounds were derivatized with 2% NaBEt4 solution and determined by GC/MS. This method was applicable for simple routine analysis. Recoveries of spiked compounds were 49.1∼118.1% for 3 PVC products and 88.8∼ 102.2% for a siliconized paper. Monooctyltin, dioctyltin and trioctyltin compounds were found in all PVC food containers at the levels of 123∼1,380μg/g, 1,770∼13,200 μg/g and 6.6∼139≇g/g, respectively. They also were found in 3 gloves, 5 spouts, 1 hose and 5 pipes. Some PVC products contained monomethyltin, dimethyltin, trimethyltin, monobutyltin and dibutyltin compounds at the levels of 97.3∼433 μg/g, 96.5∼5,120 μg/g, 8.5∼24.9 μg/g, 1.2∼852 μg/g and 1.2∼29.4 μg/g, respectively.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/shokueishi/43/4/43_4_208/_article/-char/enOrganotin Compounds1631-73-8; 1002-53-5; 2406-65-7; 83221-98-1; 78763-54-9; 83221-98-1; 94410-05-6; 15231-44-4; ; 17272-57-0; 250252-89-2; 2587-76-0; 3091-25-6; 993-16-8; 753-73-1; 1191-48-6
EnglishOrganotin speciation in textile and plastics by microwave-assisted extraction HPLC-ESI-MSWang, X., Jin, H., Ding, L., Zhang, H., Zhang, H., Qu, C., & Yu, A. (2008). Organotin speciation in textile and plastics by microwave-assisted extraction HPLC-ESI-MS. Talanta, 75(2), 556-563. 10.1016/j.talanta.2007.11.050 Analytical methodsTalanta2008The HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied for the determination of tributyltin chloride (TBT), triphenyltin chloride (TPhT), triethyltin chloride (TET) in textile and plastic samples. The separation was performed in the isocratic mode on ion exchange SCX column with a mobile phase containing methanol-ammonium acetate (50 mmol l-1)-acetic acid (90/9.98/0.02, v/v/v). Sensitive detection of three organotin compounds by ESI-MS was performed on the basis of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Limits of detection were 0.4, 20, 4 ng ml-1 for TBT, TPhT, and TET, respectively. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of organotin compounds was finished in 60% (v/v) methanol aqueous solution. Under the experimental conditions used, recoveries of three organotin compounds obtained for spiked textile and plastic samples are in the range of 55-95% and the R.S.D.s are 3-9%. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914007008302?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 668-34-8; 597-64-8; 997-50-2; 688-73-3
ChineseDetermination of organotin compounds in textile auxiliaries by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Li, Y., Hu, Y., Liu, J., Guo, Y., & Wang, G. (2011). Determination of organotin compounds in textile auxiliaries by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu), 29(4), 353-357. 10.3724/SP.J.1123.2011.00353Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu)2011A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed for the determination of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in textile auxiliaries. The sample was first extracted with w-hexane in acetate buffer solution (pH 4. 0) under ultrasonication (for hydrophobic sample) or oscillation extraction (for hydrophilic sample) and then derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate in tetrahydrofuran. The derivative was determined by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM/mode. The separation and quantification were achieved using a Rxi-5ms silica capillary coiumn (30 m ×0.25 mm x 0. 25 μm). The linear ranges were 0. 1 - 8. 0 mg/L for both DBT and TBT, and 0. 1 - 4. 0 mg/L for TPhT. There were good linear relationships between the peak area, and concentration in the linear ranges and the correlation coefficients (r 2) were 0. 999 4-0. 999 8. The detection limits (LOD) were from 0. 003 mg/L to 0. 005 mg/L. The average recoveries of these organotin compounds at the three spiked levels of 4. 0, 10. 0 and 40.0 mg/kg were 92. 6% - 108. 0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2. 5% - 10. 2%. The method is simple and accurate for simultaneous analysis of the DBT, TBT and TPhT in textile auxiliaries.http://pub.chinasciencejournal.com/ChineseJournalofChromatography/16822.jhtmlOrganotin Compounds1002-53-5; 688-73-3; 668-34-8; 892-20-6; 36643-28-4; 688-73-3
EnglishExamination of Analytical Method for Triphenyltin (TPT) and Tributyltin (TBT) to Revise the Official Methods Based on “Act on the Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances”Kawakami, T., Isama, K., Matsuoka, A., Nishimura, T., Nakashima, H., Yoshida, J., Kikuchi, Y. (2012). Examination of analytical method for triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) to revise the official methods based on “act on the control of household products containing harmful substances”. Yakugaku Zasshi, 132(10), 1197-1208. 10.1248/yakushi.12-00182 Analytical methodsYakugaku Zasshi2012The use of triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) in some household products is banned by “Act on the Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances” in Japan. To revise the official analytical method, the method for detecting these organotin compounds was examined in six laboratories using a textile product, water-based adhesive, oil-based paint, which contained known amounts of TPT and TBT (0.1, 1.0, 10 μg/g). TPT and TBT were measured by GC-MS after ethyl-derivation with sodium tetraethylborate. The TBT recoveries in the samples were 70-120%. The TPT recoveries in the water-based adhesive samples were 80-110%, while its concentrations in the textile product and oil-based paint samples decreased because of dephenylation during storage. However, the precision of the method examined was satisfactory because most coefficients of variation for TPT and TBT in the samples were less than 10%. Furthermore, the revised method was able to detect concentrations lower than the officially regulated value. However, the sample matrix and the condition of analytical instrument might affect the estimated TPT and TBT concentrations. Therefore, the revised method may not be suitable for quantitative tests; rather, it can be employed to judge the acceptable levels of these organotin compounds by comparing the values of control sample containing regulated amounts of TPT and TBT with those for an unknown sample, with deuterated TPT and TBT as surrogate substances. It is desirable that TPT in textile and oil-based paint samples are analyzed immediately after the samples obtained because of the decomposition of TPT.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/yakushi/132/10/132_12-00182/_article/-char/enOrganotin Compounds668-34-8; 36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 688-73-3
EnglishSimultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extractionHamasaki, T. (2013). Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction. Talanta, 115, 374-380. 10.1016/j.talanta.2013.04.041Analytical methodsTalanta2013A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL-1), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 ng as Sn g-1. These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 μg as Sn g-1 of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914013003561?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds1461-22-9; 2279-76-7; 683-18-1; 1461-25-2; 3542-36-7; 869-59-0
EnglishRapid screening and identification of multi-class substances of very high concern in textiles using liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap orbitrap mass spectrometryZhang, L., Luo, X., Niu, Z., Ye, X., Tang, Z., & Yao, P. (2015). Rapid screening and identification of multi-class substances of very high concern in textiles using liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap orbitrap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1386, 22-30. 10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.077Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography2015A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 19 substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in textiles, including phthalic acid esters (PAEs), organotins (OTs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and flame retardants (FRs). After ultrasonic extraction in methanol, the textile samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). The values of LOQ were in the range of 2-200. mg/kg. Recoveries at two levels (at the LOQ and at half the limit of regulation) ranged from 68% to 120%, and the repeatability was lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to the screening of SVHCs in commercial textile samples and is useful for the fast screening of various SVHCs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967315001739?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds56-35-9
ChineseDetermination of migratory organotin compounds in toys by headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometryHuo, J., Ouyang, G., Chen, L., & Wang, X. (2016). Determination of migratory organotin compounds in toys by headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu), 34(6), 615-620. 10.3724/SP.J.1123.2016.03015Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu)2016A method for the determination of ten migratory organotin compounds in toys was developed using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Toy materials were soaked in 0.07 mol/L HCl for 2 h, then the pH of the soak solution was adjusted to 4.7 by HAc-NaAc buffer. After ethylized with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4), the soaked solution was agitated and the headspace solid phase microextraction was performed with a 100 μ m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. After extraction, the SPME fiber was directly injected into the GC inlet, and the organotin compounds were separated on a DB-5 capillary column. The limits of detection for the ten organotin compounds were in the range of 0.5-5 μg/kg. The recoveries were in the ranges of 80.7%-118.7% and 86.2%-120.5% at the spiked levels of 0.500 μg/L and 5.00 μg/L. The relation standard deviations (RSDs) were all less than 15%. This method has been used to determine migratory organotin in accessible parts of toys, including coating, plastic, wood and textile. The method is simple, fast, sensitive and solvent-free.http://pub.chinasciencejournal.com/ChineseJournalofChromatography/42478.jhtmlOrganotin Compounds83221-98-1; 867-36-7; 14488-53-0; 36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 1461-25-2;78763-54-9; 15231-57-9; 15231-44-4; 94410-05-6; 1011-95-6; 668-34-8; 688-73-3
EnglishPorous silver coating fiber for rapidly screening organotin compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopyLiu, Z., Wang, L., Bian, W., Zhang, M., Zhan, J.
Porous silver coating fiber for rapidly screening organotin compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
(2017) RSC Advances, 7 (6), pp. 3117-3124.
Analytical methodsRSC Advances2017Preclinical research reveals the risk of organotin compounds (OTCs) as potent endocrine disruptors, immunotoxicants and environmental obesogens for mammals. OTCs are commercial antifungal agents which are found extensively in clothing, female hygiene products and childcare articles. OTCs have been listed as restricted chemicals by REACH Regulation (Annex XVII). Here, a hyphenated method combining surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with solid phase microextraction (SPME) is proposed for rapid screening of OTCs. A porous Ag layer was synthesized in situ and served as the SERS-active SPME coating for adsorption. The SERS spectra of trimethyltin chloride, tributyltin chloride and triphenyltin chloride were investigated, the bands at 554 cm-1, 1410 cm-1 and 999 cm-1, respectively, being selected as the characteristic peaks for quantitative determination. The extraction conditions were optimized. The good stability and uniformity of porous Ag fibers insure a high enhancement factor of 9.1 × 105 and low LOD of 0.2 ppb for triphenyltin chloride. The proposed method was successfully applied to identify a mixture of OTCs in a textile matrix with satisfactory results.http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/RA/C6RA25491H#!divAbstractOrganotin Compounds1066-45-1; 639-58-7 ; 1461-22-9;
EnglishToxic skin reactions caused by tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in socksMolin, L., & Wahlberg, J. E. (1975). Toxic skin reactions caused by tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in socks. BERUFSDERMATOSEN, 23(4), 138-142.ToxicityBERUFSDERMATOSEN1975During some hot summer days in 1973 about 70 cases of acute feet dermatitis were reported among soldiers from one regiment. They had used newly laundered socks from the same batch. The socks were disinfected with a solution containing TBTO and a quarternary ammonium compound, but by mistake a roughly 7 times too high concentration of the solution had been used. Patch tests with TBTO, quarternary ammonium compound and standard substances were negative. There was no suspicion of phototoxicity in these cases, but according to the literature TBTO may be photodynamic and several case reports relate specifically to sunny summerdays. We consider our cases to be due to the primary irritant properties of TBTO. As the span between optimal concentration for disinfection and the primary irritant concentration is narrow, we consider it inappropriate to use this substance for disinfection of textiles which are to be in direct contact with the skin until it has been established whether, for example, sweat may extract TBTO from treated fibres.n.a.Organotin Compounds56-35-9
EnglishInhibition of human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity by butyltinsHeidrich, D. D., Steckelbroeck, S., & Klingmuller, D. (2001). Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity by butyltins. Steroids, 66(10), 763-769. 10.1016/S0039-128X(01)00108-8ToxicitySteroids2001Organotin compounds are widely used as antifouling agents and bioaccumulate in the food chain. Tributyltin chloride (TBT) has been shown to induce imposex in female gastropods. On the basis of this observation it has been suggested that TBT acts as an endocrine disrupter inhibiting the conversion of androgens to estrogens mediated by the aromatase cytochrome P450 enzyme. However, to date, the molecular basis of TBT-induced imposex and in particular its putative inhibitory effects on human aromatase cytochrome P450 activity have not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the effects of the organotin compounds tetrabutyltin (TTBT), TBT, dibutyltin dichloride (DBT) and monobutyltin trichloride (MBT) on human placental aromatase activity. TBT was found to be a partial competitive inhibitor of aromatase activity with an IC50 value of 6.2 μM with 0.1 μM androstenedione as substrate. TBT impaired the affinity of the aromatase to androstenedione but did not affect electron transfer from NADPH to aromatase via inhibiting the NADPH reductase. DBT acted as a partial but less potent inhibitor of human aromatase activity (65% residual activity), whereas TTBT and MBT had no effect. The residual activity of TBT-saturated aromatase was 37%. In contrast, human 3β-HSD type I activity was only moderately inhibited by TBT (80% residual activity). Moreover, neither TTBT or DBT nor MBT inhibited the 3β-HSD type I activity. Together, these results suggest that the environmental pollutants TBT and DBT, both present in marine organisms, textile and plastic products, may have specific impacts on the metabolism of sex hormones in humans. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039128X01001088?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds1461-25-2; 683-18-1; 1118-46-3
EnglishInhibition of human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity by butyltinsHeidrich, D. D., Steckelbroeck, S., & Klingmuller, D. (2001). Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity by butyltins. Steroids, 66(10), 763-769. 10.1016/S0039-128X(01)00108-8ToxicitySteroids2001Organotin compounds are widely used as antifouling agents and bioaccumulate in the food chain. Tributyltin chloride (TBT) has been shown to induce imposex in female gastropods. On the basis of this observation it has been suggested that TBT acts as an endocrine disrupter inhibiting the conversion of androgens to estrogens mediated by the aromatase cytochrome P450 enzyme. However, to date, the molecular basis of TBT-induced imposex and in particular its putative inhibitory effects on human aromatase cytochrome P450 activity have not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the effects of the organotin compounds tetrabutyltin (TTBT), TBT, dibutyltin dichloride (DBT) and monobutyltin trichloride (MBT) on human placental aromatase activity. TBT was found to be a partial competitive inhibitor of aromatase activity with an IC50 value of 6.2 μM with 0.1 μM androstenedione as substrate. TBT impaired the affinity of the aromatase to androstenedione but did not affect electron transfer from NADPH to aromatase via inhibiting the NADPH reductase. DBT acted as a partial but less potent inhibitor of human aromatase activity (65% residual activity), whereas TTBT and MBT had no effect. The residual activity of TBT-saturated aromatase was 37%. In contrast, human 3β-HSD type I activity was only moderately inhibited by TBT (80% residual activity). Moreover, neither TTBT or DBT nor MBT inhibited the 3β-HSD type I activity. Together, these results suggest that the environmental pollutants TBT and DBT, both present in marine organisms, textile and plastic products, may have specific impacts on the metabolism of sex hormones in humans.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039128X01001088?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds1461-25-2; 56573-85-4; 683-18-1; 1118-46-3
GermanTextiles and health: A study by the Belgian textile sectorSimoens, D. (2002). Textiles and health: A study by the belgian textile sector. [Textiel En Gezondheid, Een Uitdaging Voor De Belgische Textielsector] Unitex, (5), 4-6.ToxicityUnitex2002The health risks posed by textiles, notably apparel and household fabrics are discussed. Examples quoted include allergic reactions caused by formaldehyde and heavy metals and toxicological reactions caused by organotin compounds and aryl amines. Problems of improving consumer safety, including the improvement of quality control, are considered.n.a.Organotin Compounds1631-73-8; 1002-53-5; 2406-65-7; 83221-98-1; 78763-54-9; 83221-98-1; 94410-05-6; 15231-44-4; ; 17272-57-0; 250252-89-2; 2587-76-0; 3091-25-6; 993-16-8; 753-73-1; 1191-48-6
EnglishOrganotin compounds: Toxicokinetic aspectsAppel, K. E. (2004). Organotin compounds: Toxicokinetic aspects. Drug Metabolism Reviews, 36(3-4), 763-786. 10.1081/DMR-200033490ToxicityDrug Metabolism Reviews2004Organotin compounds have a broad range of applications. While dialkyltin compounds are used primarily as stabilizers for plastics, tri substituted organotins are mainly used as biocides e.g., as an active ingredient of marine antifouling paints for boats and ships. Since a number of organotin compounds have been demonstrated to be toxic, there is increasing concern that their widespread use may cause adverse effects within environmental and biological systems. Besides carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects, as well as effects on the reproductive system, the most obvious mammalian effects of both various di- and trisubstituted organotins were found on the immune system. Exposure of humans to organotin compounds can take place through consumption of contaminated fish and seafood. In human liver samples, mainly dibutyltin, the metabolite of tributyltin, could be detected indicating that organotin compounds are bioavailable after dietary exposure. The objective of this short review is to present various toxicokinetic aspects of organotin compounds in more detail. While several studies using in vitro systems investigated their metabolism especially by the monooxygenase system, various aspects of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) pathways of different organotin compounds were described by data obtained from several studies with laboratory animals. However, most of these studies were not conducted as full ADME studies but dealt only with some of these aspects. Therefore, for definitive conclusions in some cases, additional information is requested. By reviewing and updating the current literature consideration was given preferentially to those organotin compounds which have relevance with respect to human exposure and/or toxicological effects.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1081/DMR-200033490Organotin Compounds1002-53-5; 660-74-2; 23120-99-2; 597-64-8; 595-90-4; 688-73-3; 997-50-2; 1631-73-8; 900-95-8; 76-87-9
EnglishMono- and disubstituted methyltin, butyltin, and octyltin compoundsDobson, S., Howe, P. D., & Floyd, P. (2006). Mono- and disubstituted methyltin, butyltin, and octyltin compoundsToxicityIPCS Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents2006Book chapterhttp://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad73.pdfOrganotin Compounds1631-73-8; 1002-53-5; 2406-65-7; 83221-98-1; 78763-54-9; 83221-98-1; 94410-05-6; 15231-44-4; ; 17272-57-0; 250252-89-2; 2587-76-0; 3091-25-6; 993-16-8; 753-73-1; 1191-48-6
EnglishAcute toxic effects of dioctyltin on immune system of ratsKishi, H., Nemoto, M., Enomoto, M., Shinoda, M., Kawanobe, T., & Matsui, H. (2006). Acute toxic effects of dioctyltin on immune system of rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 22(2), 240-247. 10.1016/j.etap.2006.04.007ToxicityEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology2006In the present study, dioctyltin chloride (DOTC: 100 mg/kg, BW) was orally administered to immature (30-day-old) male rats, and the acute toxic effects were studied. Di- and monooctyltin (its metabolite) accumulations were mainly detected in the liver, and peaked 48 h later. A similar pattern was also found in the kidney, but the levels were low or trace amounts. Significantly low thymus and spleen weights were detected in DOTC-treated animals. Increased apoptotic cell numbers in the thymus and spleen were observed in DOTC-treated animals also. Although the expression of 97 genes involved in apoptosis was studied in the thymus, at least 24 h after treatment, we could not detect clearly different expressions between DOTC- and vehicle-treated animals. The present results suggest that DOTC was selectively immunotoxic. One of the mechanisms for its immunotoxicity would be via its stimulation of immune cell apoptosis.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668906000639?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds3542-36-7
JapaneseReproductive and developmental toxicity of organotin compoundsEma, M. (2007). Reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotin compounds. Bulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences, (125), 35-50.ToxicityBulletin of National Institute of Health Sciences2007Organotin compounds are chemicals widely used in agriculture and industry. Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. Organotins show many aspects of toxicity, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity. However, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. The findings of the studies on reproductive and developmental effects of organotin compounds in mammals were summarized in this review.n.a.Organotin Compounds683-18-1; 77-58-7; 753-73-1; 3542-36-7; 1135-99-5; 1461-25-2; 3590-84-9; 1461-22-9; 900-95-8; 639-58-7; 76-87-9
PolishTributyltin compounds--the substances noxious to healthStarek, A. (2009). Tributyltin compounds--the substances noxious to health. [Zwiazki tributylocyny (IV)--substancje szkodliwe dla zdrowia.] Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, 60(1), 3-11.ToxicityRoczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny2009Tributylotin (TBT) compounds are lipophilic substances having low vapour pressure TBT have been used as an active ingredient in molluscicides, antifoulants and wood preservatives, disinfectants and as biocides used in cooling systems, pulp and paper mills, leather processing, and textile mills. TBT acute poisoning in humans were manifested by hepatic functional changes, hypoglycemia, glycosuria, and respiratory system disturbances, similar to asthma. In experimental animals these compounds exerted mainly immunosuppressive, endocrinopathic, neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and skin and eye irritative effects. Mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic activity of TBT have not been confirmed. However gonadotoxic, embryotoxic, fetotoxic, and developmental effects were observed. In this article the actual views on the mechanisms of TBT toxic effects have been described. In conclusion, TBT may be a potential hazardous to human health.n.a.Organotin Compounds 688-73-3; 56573-85-4; 36643-28-4;
EnglishDevelopmental immunotoxicity in male rats after juvenile exposure to di-n-octyltin dichloride (DOTC)Tonk, E. C. M., Verhoef, A., de la Fonteyne, L. J. J., Waalkens-Berendsen, I. D. H., Wolterbeek, A. P. M., van Loveren, H., & Piersma, A. H. (2011). Developmental immunotoxicity in male rats after juvenile exposure to di-n-octyltin dichloride (DOTC). Reproductive Toxicology, 32(3), 341-348. 10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.08.005ToxicityReproductive Toxicology2011To determine relevant endpoints for evaluating developmental immunotoxicity due to juvenile exposure and optimal age of the animals at assessment, a wide range of immunological parameters were assessed in a juvenile toxicity study. Rats were exposed to di-n-octyltin dichloride (DOTC) by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10 through PND 21 and via the diet after weaning using a benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Immune assessments were performed in male rats on PNDs 21, 42, and 70 and a subset of animals was used to evaluate the T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Immune effects were more pronounced on PND 21 and 42 and observed at lower doses than developmental effects. The most sensitive immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters and thymocyte subpopulations with lower confidence limits of the benchmark doses (BMDLs) below the overall no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for DOTC reported so far in literature. These findings illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system for DOTC, the additional value of assessing functional immune parameters, and underscore the relevance of juvenile immunotoxicity testing in view of the risk assessment of chemicals. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623811003534?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds3542-36-7
EnglishToxicity of trimethyltin and dimethyltin in rats and miceTang, X., Wu, X., Dubois, A. M., Sui, G., Wu, B., Lai, G., . . . Ren, X. (2013). Toxicity of trimethyltin and dimethyltin in rats and mice. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 90(5), 626-633. 10.1007/s00128-013-0975-xToxicityBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology2013Extensive uses of methyltin compounds in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production have led to a dramatic increase of occupational-related methyltin poisoning accidents and the widespread contamination of methyltins in various environmental media. Here, we conducted studies to compare the acute toxicity induced by trimethyltin (TMT) and dimethyltin (DMT), and investigated the cumulative toxic effects of TMT in rats and mice. Neurobehavioral changes were observed in rats and mice treated with either DMT or TMT, but we also observed that both TMT and DMT exposure in rats significantly lowered the blood potassium level. Moreover, the cumulative toxic coefficient factor of TMT was 1.7 in rats versus 3.8 in mice, suggesting a high cumulative risk for rats and a moderate risk for mice. In summary, we demonstrated that acute and chronic exposure to methyltin compounds induced neurotoxicity and hypokalemia. Moreover, our study suggests that TMT can accumulate in the body and pose a risk for workers chronically exposed to a low dose of TMT. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00128-013-0975-xOrganotin Compounds16408-15-4; 83221-98-1; 1631-73-8
EnglishOccurrence of tin in disposable baby diapersŠmajgl, D., & Obhodaš, J. (2015). Occurrence of tin in disposable baby diapers. X-Ray Spectrometry, 44(4), 230-232. 10.1002/xrs.2609ToxicityX-Ray Spectrometry2015Concentrations of tin were measured in six different brands of disposable baby diapers by using radioisotope (americium) excited energy dispersive X‐ray fluorescence. Top sheet and adhesive tape system were measured separately. The concentrations found in top sheet and tape system were <1.5 to 23.1 mg/kg and <1.5 to 22.4 mg/kg, respectively. Almost all diapers contained tin in the adhesive tape system (four of five), and two of six samples contained tin in top sheet. Tin found in diapers may be an organotin substance: tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), monobutyltin (MBT) and/or dioctyltin (DOT), which are widely used in industrial processes as catalysts or as PVC heat stabilizers. Organotin substances have toxic effects which include neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption. The measured concentrations were less than EU regulatory levels of 0.1% by weight of tin prescribed by REACH Annex XVII No 20. However, the same regulation completely bans the use of organotin substances as biocides in antifouling paints. While effects of TBT on marine organisms from antifouling paints are well known, the effects of organotin compounds in childcare products and other commercial articles receive much less attention. Children who use disposable diapers every day are particularly sensitive. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/xrs.2609Organotin Compounds1191-48-6; 56573-85-4; 36643-28-4; 14488-53-0; 83221-98-1; 78763-54-9; 94410-05-6; 15231-44-4; 688-73-3
English“Simulated gastric hydrolysis and developmental toxicity of dioctyltin bis(2-Ethylhexylthioglycolate) [DOTE] in rabbits and mice”Costlow, R. D., Nasshan, H., & Frenkel, P. (2017). “Simulated gastric hydrolysis and developmental toxicity of dioctyltin bis(2-ethylhexylthioglycolate) [DOTE] in rabbits and mice”. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 87, 23-29. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.03.026ToxicityRegulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology2017Based on previous studies, dioctyltin dichloride [DOTC] was a putative toxophore for dioctyltin thioesters. Our results, generated with the use of 119Sn-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that dioctyltin bis(2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) [DOTE] hydrolyzed to form dioctyltin chloro-(2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) [DOTCE] under simulated gastric conditions, but no DOTC was formed. DOTE was administered orally at 4, 20, and 80 mg/kg/day [GD6-GD28; rabbits] or at 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day [GD5-GD17; mice]. There were no maternal deaths, treatment-related statistically significant reductions in maternal body weight or weight gain, or adverse gestational outcomes in either species. Maternal thymus weight was significantly reduced in mice at 30 and 60 mg/kg. There were no effects on fetal growth, no dose-dependent pattern of external, visceral or skeletal malformations and no increase in anatomical variations in either species. We conclude that DOTE likely forms DOTCE, not DOTC, in the stomach and DOTE was not teratogenic or fetotoxic in rabbits or mice. The rabbit maternal NOAEL was 80 mg/kg/day. The rabbit developmental NOAEL was 80 mg/kg/day. The mouse maternal LOAEL was 30 mg/kg/day based on reduced thymus weight and a dose-dependent effect on maternal weight at 60 mg/kg. The mouse developmental NOAEL was 60 mg/kg bw/day, the high dose.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027323001730082X?via%3Dihub#bib1Organotin Compounds15571-58-1
EnglishThe endocrine-disrupting effect of organotin compounds for aquatic organisms (book chapter)Horiguchi, T. (2009). The endocrine-disrupting effect of organotin compounds for aquatic organisms. Ecotoxicology of antifouling biocides (pp. 125-146)10.1007/978-4-431-85709-9_8ToxicityEcotoxicology of Antifouling Biocides2009The first report of masculinized female gastropod mollusks was made by Blaber (1970), describing a penis-like outgrowth behind the right tentacle in spent females of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus around Plymouth, UK. The term, imposex, however, was defined by Smith (1971), meaning imposed sexual organs, to describe the syndrome of a superimposition of male genital tracts, such as penis and vas deferens, on female gastropods. Imposex is thought to be an irreversible syndrome (Bryan et al. 1986). Reproductive failure may be brought about in severely affected stages of imposex, resulting in population decline and/or mass extinction (Gibbs and Bryan 1986, 1996). Imposex is known to be induced in many species by trib-utyltin (TBT), and also by triphenyltin (TPT) released from antifouling paints on ships and fishing nets (Bryan et al. 1987, 1988; Gibbs et al. 1987; Horiguchi et al. 1995, 1997a). © 2009 Springer Japan.https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-4-431-85709-9_8Organotin Compounds36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 668-34-8; 688-73-3
EnglishToxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to terrestrial organisms and its species sensitivity distributionSilva, P., Silva, A.R., Mendo, S., & Loureiro, S. (2014). Toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) to terrestrial organisms and its species sensitivity distribution. Science of The Total Environment, 466-467, 1037-1046. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.002ToxicityScience of The Total Environment2014The contamination of the terrestrial environment by disposal of tributyltin (TBT) by contaminated harbour sediments, sewage sludge and/or biocide products has been raising concerns and it may pose a risk to soil invertebrates and plants.

This study aimed to improve the amount and quality of data for TBT toxicity in soils in order to assess the ecological risk of TBT to the terrestrial ecosystems. For this, bioassays were performed with the species Porcellionides pruinosus, Folsomia candida, Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum to evaluate the toxic effects of TBT (as chloride) on these species. Additionally, this study contributed to increase the amount of data concerning TBT toxicity on soil dwelling organisms. The results showed a dose–response relationship between TBT concentration and the increase of toxicity in all species tested. These results were collated with results from literature to construct species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and to calculate the hazardous concentration at 5% (HC5) for all data, for each type of soil and TBT formulation used.

The HC5 value for TBT in soil was 2.06 mg TBT/kg soil dw. Little information is available concerning the concentrations of TBT in soils. In addition the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) value was determined to be 30 μg/kg soil. Only one study was found referring to TBT contaminated soils, and where TBT concentrations were lower than 0.024 μg TBT/kg for the wetland soil. Therefore it can be concluded that the real TBT concentrations determined represent low risk for environmental effects. In conclusion, the construction of SSDs and the calculation of HC5 using all the data available showed to be a more suitable method rather than the construction of several SSDs for each soil and TBT types. Further investigations concerning TBT concentrations and toxicity on soil organisms need to be performed to increase data and improve risk calculations
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713009169Organotin Compounds36643-28-4; 56573-85-4;688-73-3
EnglishMicrobes a tool for the remediation of organotin pollution determined by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometryFinnegan, C., Ryan, D., Enright, A. -., & Garcia-Cabellos, G. (2018). Microbes a tool for the remediation of organotin pollution determined by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Molecules, 23(3)10.3390/molecules23030627Antipollution systemsMolecules2018Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic compounds introduced into the marine environment. Despite its global ban in 2008, TBT is still a problem of great concern due to its high affinity for particulate matter, providing a direct and potentially persistent route of entry into benthic sediments. Bioremediation strategies may constitute an alternative approach to conventional physicochemical methods, benefiting from the microorganism’s potential to metabolize anthropogenic compounds. In this work, a simple, precise and accurate static headspace gas chromatography method was developed to investigate the ability of TBT degrading microbes in sedimentary microcosms over a period of 120 days. The proposed method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The method was subsequently successfully applied for the detection and quantification of TBT and degradation compounds in sediment samples on day 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 of the experiment employing the principles of green chemistry. On day 120 the concentration of TBT remaining in the microcosms ranged between 91.91 ng/g wet wt for the least effective microbial inoculant to 52.73 ng/g wet wt for the most effective microbial inoculant from a starting concentration of 100 ng/g wet wt. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/3/627Organotin Compounds688-73-3; 36643-28-4; 56573-85-4;
EnglishAdsorption and degradation processes of tributyltin and trimethyltin in landfill leachates treated with iron nanoparticlesPeeters, K., Lespes, G., Milačič, R., & Ščančar, J. (2015). Adsorption and degradation processes of tributyltin and trimethyltin in landfill leachates treated with iron nanoparticles. Environmental Research, 142, 511-521.Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Research2015Biotic and abiotic degradation of toxic organotin compounds (OTCs) in landfill leachates is usually not complete. In this work adsorption and degradation processes of tributyltin (TBT) and trimethyltin (TMeT) in leachate sample treated with different iron nanoparticles (FeNPs): Fe0 (nZVI), FeO and Fe3O4 were investigated to find conditions for their efficient removal. One sample aliquot was kept untreated (pH 8), while to the others (pH 8) FeNPs dispersed with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) or by mixing were added and samples shaken under aerated conditions for 7 days. The same experiments were done in leachates in which the pH was adjusted to 3 with citric acid. Size distribution of TBT and TMeT between particles >5 µm, 0.45–5 µm, 2.5–0.45 µm, and <2.5 nm was determined by sequential filtration and their concentrations in a given fraction by gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-MS). Results revealed that most of the TBT or TMeT was present in fractions with particles >2.5 or <2.5 nm, respectively. At pH 8 adsorption of TBT to FeNPs prevailed, while at pH 3, the Fenton reaction provoked degradation of TBT by hydroxyl radicals. TBT was the most effectively removed (96%) when sequential treatment of leachate with nZVI (dispersed by mixing) was applied first at pH 8, followed by nZVI treatment of the aqueous phase, previously acidified to pH 3 with citric acid. Such treatment less effectively removed TMeT (about 40%). It was proven that TMAH provoked methylation of tin, so mixing was recommended for dispersion of nZVI.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300451?via%3DihubOrganotin Compounds 688-73-3; 1631-73-8; 36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 17272-57-0
EnglishOccurrence and Fate of Organic and Organometallic Pollutants in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants and Their Impact on Receiving Waters (Adour Estuary, France)Cavalheiro, J., Zuloaga, O., Prieto, A., Preudhomme, H., Amouroux, D., & Monperrus, M. (2017). Occurrence and fate of organic and organometallic pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plants and their impact on receiving waters (Adour Estuary, France). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 73(4), 619-630. 10.1007/s00244-017-0422-9Antipollution systemsArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology2017To achieve a “Good Environmental Status by 2015,” as demanded by the water framework directive, monitoring programs are needed to furnish data on target compounds. In this study, a first evaluation of influents and main emissions of 3 local wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Adour estuary (southwest of France) was performed for 23 pollutants (10 musk fragrances, 5 alkylphenols, and 8 organometallics), as well as receiving estuarine water from the same area. High frequency of occurrence of these compounds was found in influents samples (musks: 22–100%; alkylphenols 11–100%; organometallics 0–100%) and effluents (musks: 0–100%; alkylphenols 0–100%; organometallics 0–100%). The removal efficiencies were calculated and varied from negative values up to 98% with the lowest values for synthetic musk compounds. Temporal variability of the target compounds also was studied, and a few tendencies were observed. Estimation of the daily output of each WWTP into the estuary also showed that galaxolide, nonylphenol, monobuthyltin, and inorganic mercury were the compounds discharged into the environment at the highest concentrations. Finally, the occurrence of these compounds in estuarine waters was evaluated; most of them were present at concentrations below the limits of quantification (musks: 0.53–41.5 ng/L; alkylphenols 3.4–410 ng/L; organometallics 0.02–0.70 ng/L) suggesting a low impact in the resulting receiving waters.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00244-017-0422-9Organotin Compounds78763-54-9; 14488-53-0; 1191-48-6; 688-73-3; 36643-28-4; 56573-85-4; 2406-68-0; 1011-95-6; 1011-95-6; 6381-06-2; 668-34-8
EnglishRapid, one-pot derivatization and distillation of chlorophenols from solid samples with their on-line enrichmentGaneshjeevan, R., Chandrasekar, R., Kadigachalam, P., & Radhakrishnan, G. (2007). Rapid, one-pot derivatization and distillation of chlorophenols from solid samples with their on-line enrichment. Journal of Chromatography A, 1140(1-2), 168-173. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.11.083Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2007A microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) sample preparation technique for extracting chlorophenols from solid samples was studied. This open vessel microwave system based study developed as an integrated method since it has incorporated extractive distillation, derivatization and on-line enrichment. Gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture detection was used for the analysis. The study involved optimization of MASD parameters and on-line enrichments using spiked solid samples. MASD achieved recoveries for spiked soil samples in the range of 94-101% within 20 min with a collection of only 20 ml distillate facilitating on-line enrichment. Some real samples were analyzed that included soil, wood, leather, textiles, dyes and certified reference materials of soil and wood samples. Limit of detection values of 12 ng/g for pentachlorophenol and 194 ng/g for monochlorophenol were found. Recoveries of 96.6% in the case of soil certified reference material (CRM) with RSD 2.7% and 80.6% in the case of wood CRM with RSD 3.3% were observed in this study. MASD studied found to produce very clean extracts in comparison to reference techniques. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002196730602245X?via%3DihubChlorophenolschlorophenol, 25167-80-0; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5
EnglishQuantitative determination of chlorophenols in leather by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography with diode-array detectionFavaro, G., De Leo, D., Pastore, P., Magno, F., & Ballardin, A. (2008). Quantitative determination of chlorophenols in leather by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Journal of Chromatography A, 1177(1), 36-42. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.10.106Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2008Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with acetonitrile was used for the recovery of chlorophenols (4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-phenylphenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) present as biocides in leather. After a single cycle PLE treatment, solutions underwent pre-concentration by evaporation of the solvent under vacuum and clean-up treatment with solid-phase extraction cartridges. Quantitative analysis of the target compounds was carried out by liquid chromatography with gradient elution and UV spectrophotometric detection at variable wavelength for the various analytes in the range 190-240 nm. Instrumental detection limits and operative detection limits in the real matrices were determined according to the Hubaux-Vos approach and to the US Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The detection limits for the seven analytes ranged from 10 to 70 μg kg-1. Linearity was very good in the explored range (10-7-10-5 M) giving R2 values from 0.995 to 1.000 for pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively. Repeatability was satisfactory, 2-5% for a 1 × 10-6 M level of concentration, on five repeated measurements on the sample. Recovery yield values with the proposed procedure were determined using spiked samples. Overall recovery ranged from 88 to 97%. The method was used for routine analysis of real leather samples. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.n.a.Chlorophenols2,3,4,6 tetrachlorophenol, 58-90-2; 2,4 dichlorophenol, 120-83-2; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5
EnglishDetermination of chlorophenols in sediment using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and GC-MS analysisXu, M., Gui, L., Peng, S. -., Chen, T. -., & Wang, J. -. (2017). Determination of chlorophenols in sediment using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and GC-MS analysis. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 52(2), 90-98. doi:10.2166/wqrj.2017.044Analytical methodsWater Quality Research Journal of Canada2017A method for determination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediments was developed using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by solid-phase extraction, derivatization, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Some effective operational details and parameters on mixing of samples and extraction solvent, adsorption loss, and extraction cycles of the derivatives were studied and optimized. The calibration curves of standard solutions were observed in the range of 0.5-100 μg L-1 and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.998 to 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) for individual CPs are in the range of 0.026-0.072 ng g-1. The method showed good performance with the recovery efficiencies of target CPs in spiked sediment at 73.2-105.6%. In addition, the feasibility of applying the proposed method to determine the concentration of CPs in field core sediment samples collected in three shallow lakes in Eastern China was examined. The obtained results show that the present method is a sensitive, simple, low cost and highly feasible method for determination of CPs in sediment samples. © IWA Publishing 2017.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9
95-95-4
120-83-2
88-06-2
58-90-2
87-65-0
108-43-0
933-75-5
609-19-8
591-35-5
583-78-8
95-77-2
15950-66-0
576-24-9
933-78-8
4901-51-3
EnglishDetermination of chlorophenols in water samples with liquid-liquid extraction and derivation followed by GC-MSBai, Y., Xu, G., Wu, M., Ma, J., & Liu, N. (2011). Determination of chlorophenols in water samples with liquid-liquid extraction and derivation followed by GC-MS. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, iCBBE 2011, doi:10.1109/icbbe.2011.5780785 Analytical methodsConference Proceedings2011This paper introduced a way of determination of CPs in waters by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method modified the EPA 625 method and the EPA 528 method for determination of chlorophenols in waters. © 2011 IEEE.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishDetermination of chlorophenols in landfill leachate using headspace sampling with ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometryHo, T. -., Chen, C. -., Li, Z. -., Yang, T. C. C., & Lee, M. -. (2012). Determination of chlorophenols in landfill leachate using headspace sampling with ionic liquid-coated solid-phase microextraction fibers combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 712, 72-77. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.11.025Analytical methodsAnalytica Chimica Acta2012A new microextraction technique based on ionic liquid solid-phase microextraction (IL-SPME) was developed for determination of trace chlorophenols (CPs) in landfill leachate. The synthesized ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4MIM][PF 6]), was coated onto the spent fiber of SPME for extraction of trace CPs. After extraction, the absorbed analytes were desorbed and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The term of the proposed method is as ionic liquid-coated of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IL-SPME-GC/MS). No carryover effect was found, and every laboratory-made ionic liquids-coated-fiber could be used for extraction at least eighty times without degradation of efficiency. The chlorophenols studied were 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The best results of chlorophenols analysis were obtained with landfill leachate at pH 2, headspace extraction for 4min, and thermal desorption with the gas chromatograph injector at 240°C for 4min. Linearity was observed from 0.1 to 1000μgL -1 with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 7% and recoveries were over 87%. The limit of detection (LOD) for pentachlorophenol was 0.008μgL -1. The proposed method was tested by analyzing landfill leachate from a sewage farm. The concentrations of chlorophenols were detected to range from 1.1 to 1.4μgL -1. The results demonstrate that the IL-SPME-GC/MS method is highly effective in analyzing trace chlorophenols in landfill leachate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267011015066?via%3DihubChlorophenols2,4 dichlorophenol, 120-83-2; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5
EnglishChromatographic Methods for Determination of Chlorophenols as Biomarkers of Exposure to Pesticides and Organochlorine Substancesde Morais, P., Stoichev, T., Basto, M. C., & Vasconcelos, M. T. (2013). Chromatographic methods for determination of chlorophenols as biomarkers of exposure to pesticides and organochlorine substances doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6461-3_18Analytical methodsNATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security2013Chromatographic methods for chlorophenols (CPs) determination that can be applied to clinical (blood, urine) and breast milk samples are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to sample storage conditions and to the application of preconcentration techniques. Solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction, liquid phase microextraction and steam distillation methods are considered in view of the potential use of CPs as biomarkers of exposure to different pesticides. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-6461-3_18Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishNovel polyamide-based nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique for headspace solid-phase microextraction of phenol and chlorophenols from environmental samplesBagheri, H., Aghakhani, A., Baghernejad, M., & Akbarinejad, A. (2012). Novel polyamide-based nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique for headspace solid-phase microextraction of phenol and chlorophenols from environmental samples. Analytica Chimica Acta, 716, 34-39. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.03.016Analytical methodsAnalytica Chimica Acta2012A novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by electrospinning method in which a polymeric solution was converted to nanofibers using high voltages. A thin stainless steel wire was coated by the network of polymeric nanofibers. The polymeric nanofiber coating on the wire was mechanically stable due to the fine and continuous nanofibers formation around the wire with a three dimensional structure. Polyamide (nylon 6), due to its suitable characteristics was used to prepare the unbreakable SPME nanofiber. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of this new coating showed a diameter range of 100-200nm for polyamide nanofibers with a homogeneous and porous surface structure. The extraction efficiency of new coating was investigated for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some environmentally important chlorophenols from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength and polyamide amount were investigated and optimized. In order to improve the chromatographic behavior of phenolic compounds, all the analytes were derivatized prior to the extraction process using basic acetic anhydride. The detection limits of the method under optimized conditions were in the range of 2-10ngL -1. The relative standard deviations (RSD) (n=3) at the concentration level of 1.7-6.7ngmL -1 were obtained between 1 and 7.4%. The calibration curves of chlorophenols showed linearity in the range of 27-1330ngL -1 for phenol and monochlorophenols and 7-1000ngL -1 for dichloro and trichlorophenols. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenol and chlorophenols from real water samples and relative recoveries were between 84 and 98% for all the selected analytes except for 2,4,6 tricholophenol which was between 72 and 74%. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267011003631?via%3DihubChlorophenols2 chlorophenol, 95-57-8; 2,4 dichlorophenol, 120-83-2; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; 4 chlorophenol; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0
EnglishExtraction of some chlorophenols from environmental waters using a novel graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite followed by HPLC determinationWang, J., Wang, W., Wu, Q., Wang, C., & Wang, Z. (2014). Extraction of some chlorophenols from environmental waters using a novel graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite followed by HPLC determination. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, 37(16), 2349-2362. doi:10.1080/10826076.2013.832296Analytical methodsJournal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies2014A novel graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite (G-Fe3O 4) was prepared and used as an effective adsorbent for the preconcentration of some chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 2, 3-dichlorophenol, 3, 4-dichlorophenol, and 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol) in environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection. Various experimental parameters that could affect the extraction efficiencies, such as the amount of G-Fe3O 4, the extraction time, the pH of sample solution and the desorption conditions, have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity existed in the range of 1.0-100.0 ng mL-1 for all the analytes, with the determination coefficients (r2) ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9992. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the method were between 0.10 and 0.12 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.2% to 7.5% (n = 6), and the recoveries of the method for the analytes at spiking levels of 5.0 and 10.0 ng mL-1 were in the range from 85.6% to 107.3%. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of some chlorophenols in environmental water samples. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10826076.2013.832296Chlorophenols2 chlorophenol, 95-57-8; 2,3 dichlorophenol, 576-24-9; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; 3 chlorophenol, 108-43-0; 3,4 dichlorophenol, 95-77-2; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0
EnglishToxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: The public health perspectiveIgbinosa, E. O., Odjadjare, E. E., Chigor, V. N., Igbinosa, I. H., Emoghene, A. O., Ekhaise, F. O., . . . Idemudia, O. G. (2013). Toxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: The public health perspective. The Scientific World Journal, 2013 doi:10.1155/2013/460215ToxicityThe Scientific World Journal2013Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation. © 2013 Etinosa O. Igbinosa et al.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649668/Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishFirst toxicity data of chlorophenols on marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta: Correlation of marine algal toxicity with hydrophobicity and interspecies toxicity relationshipsErtürk, M. D., & Saçan, M. T. (2012). First toxicity data of chlorophenols on marine alga dunaliella tertiolecta: Correlation of marine algal toxicity with hydrophobicity and interspecies toxicity relationships. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31(5), 1113-1120. doi:10.1002/etc.1782ToxicityEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry2012The toxicity of phenol and 13 chlorinated phenols to the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta is presented for the first time. The newly generated marine algal toxicity data was found to correlate strongly with the widely used hydrophobicity parameter-the logarithm of the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (logK OW). Interspecies relationships using the new marine algal toxicity data of chlorophenols with the previously published data on bacterium (Vibrio fischeri), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), daphnid (Daphnia magna), freshwater alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and fish (Pimephales promelas) revealed promising results that could be exploited in extrapolations using freshwater data to predict marine algal toxicity. © 2012 SETAC.https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/etc.1782Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
ChineseAssessment of cytotoxicity of chlorophenols using two-signal cell electrochemical methodQin, H., Yan, B., You, G., Zhao, Y., & Cong, Q. (2017). Assessment of cytotoxicity of chlorophenols using two-signal cell electrochemical method. Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 37(4), 1594-1600. doi:10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2016.0472ToxicityHuanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae2017The linear sweep voltammetric (LSV) behavior of human cervical carcinoma (MCF-7) cells on the multiwall carbon nanotubes and ionic liquid modified glass electrode (MWCNTs-IL/GCE) was studied, and two oxidation peak signals were detected at 0.725 V and 1.038 V. Compared the electrochemical behaviors of four purines with model cell and the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the resulting response sources of the voltammetric behaviors were confirmed from the oxidation of xanthine and guanine as well as hypoxanthine and adenine in the cytoplasm of MCF-7 cells. Based on the peak current variation of the two response signals, the cytotoxicitites of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on MCF-7 cells were assessed. In addition, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were calculated according to the dose-effect relationship curves. The IC50s were further compared with those obtained from the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The results implied that the chlorophenols could significantly inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cell, and both the toxicity orders obtained from the cell electrochemical detection method and the MTT assay were PCP>TCP>DCP. The cell electrochemical detection method was rapid and accurate in the cytotoxicity assessment of chlorophenols. The research results are expected to provide a new idea for the establishment of safe, label-free, exact and objective toxicity assessment to hazardous chemicals. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.http://doi.cnki.net/Resolution/Handler?doi=10.13671/j.hjkxxb.2016.0472Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishTreatment of chlorophenols by UV-based processes: Correlation of oxidation by-products, wastewater parameters, and toxicityKrebel, M., Kusic, H., Koprivanac, N., Meixner, J., & Bozic, A. L. (2011). Treatment of chlorophenols by UV-based processes: Correlation of oxidation by-products, wastewater parameters, and toxicity. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137(7), 639-649. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000361ToxicityJournal of Environmental Engineering2011The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicity and biodegradability of para-chlorophenol (p-CP) model wastewater when treated by UV and UV/H 2O 2 processes. We investigated the correlations between the toxicity and the concentration of p-CP and its oxidation by-products, as well as other parameters-summarizing characteristics which potentially indicate hazardous water components, e.g., AOX (adsorbable organic halides), TOC (total organic carbon), and COD and BOD 5 (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand). Biodegradability is estimated by the BOD 5/COD ratio. The toxic effects were investigated on luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri, determining the EC 50 value. The correlation between each data pair was estimated using a statistical approach calculating the Spearman rank coefficients. The biodegradability of the p-CP model wastewater was improved by the UV/H 2O 2 process; the BOD 5/COD ratio increased from 0.37 to 0.73 after a 1-h treatment (F=1243 mJ cm -2). According to the calculated Spearman rank coefficient, the highest correlation with toxicity data among all monitored parameters was obtained for hydroquinone and benzoquinone, as by-products of p-CP degradation, as well as for the BOD 5/COD ratio. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.https://ascelibrary.org/doi/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EE.1943-7870.0000361Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishCombined toxicity of three chlorophenols 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol to Daphnia magnaXing, L., Sun, J., Liu, H., & Yu, H. (2012). Combined toxicity of three chlorophenols 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol to daphnia magna. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14(6), 1677-1683. doi:10.1039/c2em30185gToxicityJournal of Environmental Monitoring2012The toxicity of single and combined mixtures of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to Daphnia magna was studied. The toxicity ranking of these three single chlorophenols (CPs) to Daphnia magna was PCP > 2,4-DCP > 2,4,6-TCP. The toxic units (TU) approach was used to estimate the combined effects in experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) values were 0.87-1.21 and 0.46-0.59 for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. Response surface models of General Linear Models (R2 > 0.90, residual deviation < 3.25) were established for all three binary mixtures. The toxicity for ternary mixtures based on the EC50-value and 10% effective concentration (EC10)-value fixed mixture ratio presented a synergism. The risk based on the single CP's toxicity test may be underestimated. In addition, four approaches (concentration addition, toxicity equivalency factors, effect summation, and independent action) were used for the calculation of combined effects of the mixture. The experimental results showed that concentration addition and toxicity equivalency factor approaches were effective methods for calculation of additive effects of mixtures from binary systems of CPs; while independent action and effect summation (low simulated tail) predicted lower toxicity than experimental results. Limitations of the traditional focus on the effects of single agents were highlighted; hazard assessments ignoring the possibility of joint action of CPs will almost certainly lead to significant underestimations of risk. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/EM/c2em30185g#!divAbstractChlorophenols2,4 dichlorophenol, 120-83-2; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0;
EnglishThe toxic effects of chlorophenols and associated mechanisms in fishGe, T., Han, J., Qi, Y., Gu, X., Ma, L., Zhang, C., . . . Huang, D. (2017). The toxic effects of chlorophenols and associated mechanisms in fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 184, 78-93. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.01.005ToxicityAquatic Toxicology2017Chlorophenols (CPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment primarily released from agricultural and industrial wastewater. These compounds are not readily degraded naturally, and easily accumulate in organs, tissues and cells via food chains, further leading to acute and chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Herein, we review the available literature regarding CP toxicity in fish, with special emphasis on the potential toxic mechanisms. CPs cause oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative DNA damage along with inhibition of antioxidant systems. CPs affect immune system by altering the number of mature B cells and macrophages, while suppressing phagocytosis and down-regulating the expression of immune factors. CPs also disrupt endocrine function by affecting hormone levels, or inducing abnormal gene expression and interference with hormone receptors. CPs at relatively higher concentrations induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway, cell death receptor-mediated pathway, and/or DNA damage-mediated pathway. CPs at relatively lower concentrations promote cell proliferation, and foster cancers-prone environment by increasing the rate of point mutations and oxidative DNA lesions. These toxic effects in fish are induced directly by CPs per se or indirectly by their metabolic products. In addition, recent studies on the alteration of DNA methylation by CPs through high-throughput DNA sequencing analysis provide new insights into our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying CPs toxicity. � 2017 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166445X17300139?via%3DihubChlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
ChineseReview of the aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality criteria of three chlorophenolsLuo, Q., Zha, J., Lei, B., Xu, Y., & Wang, Z. (2009). Review of the aquatic ecotoxicology and water quality criteria of three chlorophenols. Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 29(11), 2241-2249. ToxicityHuanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae2009Chlorophenols, a class of important chemical products such as 2, 4-DCP, 2, 4, 6-TCP and PCP, can be detected widely in Chinese waters. Their ecotoxicological behavior in the aquatic environment has long been of concern. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics, aquatic environmental fate, metabolism, toxicity and toxicology in aquatic organisms of three chlorophenols are briefly summarized. Furthermore, derived water quality criteria of three chlorophenols for aquatic ecosystem are discussed, which could provide important suggestions for their application and management, risk assessment, as well as pollution control in the future.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishA tiered ecological risk assessment of three chlorophenols in Chinese surface watersJin, X., Gao, J., Zha, J., Xu, Y., Wang, Z., Giesy, J. P., & Richardson, K. L. (2012). A tiered ecological risk assessment of three chlorophenols in chinese surface waters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19(5), 1544-1554. doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0660-8ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2012Introduction: The ecological risks posed by three chlorophenols (CPs), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Chinese surface waters were assessed. Materials and methods: This was achieved by applying a tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach ranging from deterministic methods to probabilistic options to measured concentrations of CPs in surface water of seven major watersheds and three drainage regions in China and the chronic toxicity data for indigenous Chinese species. Results and discussion: The results show that the risks of three chlorophenols are ranked PCP>2,4-DCP≈2,4,6-TCP. PCP posed little ecological risk while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP posed negligible or de minimis risk in Chinese surface water. However, the risks varied with different river basins, for example, PCP posed some ecological risk in the Yangtze, Huaihe, and Pearl Rivers. The magnitude of 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP pollution in North China was more serious than that in South China. Conclusion: The probabilistic risk assessment approach, which can provide more information for risk managers and decision makers, was favored over the screening-level single-value estimate method. However, the results from all tiers of the ERA methods in the framework were consistent with each other. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-011-0660-8Chlorophenols2,4 dichlorophenol, 120-83-2; 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, 88-06-2; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0; pentachlorophenol, 87-86-5;
EnglishToxicity measurements in aqueous solution during ozonation of mono-chlorophenolsShang, N. -., Yu, Y. -., Ma, H. -., Chang, C. -., & Liou, M. -. (2006). Toxicity measurements in aqueous solution during ozonation of mono-chlorophenols. Journal of Environmental Management, 78(3), 216-222. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2005.03.015ToxicityJournal of Environmental Management2006The Microtox toxicity and Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) inhibition tests were conducted to monitor the variation of toxicity during ozonation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under neutral conditions. The results revealed that the oxidized 2-CP solution exhibited new toxicity to pure bacteria and mixed microorganisms in the early stage of ozonation. The largest inhibition of OUR appeared at one mol of applied ozone dosage per mol of initial 2-CP, and the percentage of inhibition was 63.8%. In addition, ozonated 3-CP and 4-CP also significantly induced new aqueous toxicity, if these toxic intermediates were not further ozonated. Comparing the variation of toxicity and the hydroxylated/chlorinated intermediates formed, 3-chloro-catechol, 2-chloro-2, 4-hexadienedioic acid and the dimmer compounds may be related to the sources of toxicity during the ozonation of 2-CP. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479705001830?via%3DihubChlorophenols2 chlorophenol, 95-57-8; 3 chlorophenol, 108-43-0; 4 chlorophenol, 106-48-9; chlorophenol, 25167-80-0
EnglishPhotocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols under direct solar radiation in the presence of ZnO catalystBa-Abbad, M. M., Kadhum, A. A. H., Mohamad, A. B., Takriff, M. S., & Sopian, K. (2013). Photocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols under direct solar radiation in the presence of ZnO catalyst. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 39(5), 1981-1996. doi:10.1007/s11164-012-0731-6Antipollution systemsResearch on Chemical Intermediates2013The photocatalytic degradation of chlorophenols was evaluated under direct solar radiation using commercial ZnO catalyst. Effects of several parameters such as a catalyst loading, pH of solution and initial concentration on the degradation process have been investigated. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of chlorophenols at the optimum value of the parameters was compared under similar experimental conditions. The results of efficiency and mineralization showed the degradation of 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol compound with the first order kinetic rate and the rate constant decreases as the initial concentration of the chlorophenols increase. However, the rate constant was strongly affected by type of chlorophenols compound present either 2-chlorophenol or 2,4-dichlorophenol. The highest removal of chlorophenols was obtained after 120 min and the final intermediate compounds of chlorophenols degradation are lower molecular weight compound consisting of acetic acid which was analyzed through the HPLC. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11164-012-0731-6Chlorophenols2,4-dichlorophenol 120-83-2; 2-monochlorophenol
95-57-8;
EnglishDegradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: The state of the art on transformation products and toxicityKarci, A. (2014). Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: The state of the art on transformation products and toxicity. Chemosphere, 99, 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.034Antipollution systemsChemosphere2014Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as “textile chemicals” from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity?https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653513014355Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishDegradation of water pollutants using ultrasoundPaniwnyk, L., Larpparisudthi, O., & Mason, T. J. (2010). Degradation of water pollutants using ultrasound. Paper presented at the 20th International Congress on Acoustics 2010, ICA 2010 - Incorporating Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference of the Australian Acoustical Society, , 1 578-581.Antipollution systemsConference proceedings2010Water can contain many different types of pollutants of a chemical and also of a biological nature and therefore must be treated prior to subsequent use. Textile effluents contain waste dyestuffs which are sometimes difficult to treat by conventional processes which often involve biological and chemical methods. Due to their toxicity, the treatment efficiency of chlorophenols by general biological treatment systems is normally low and fairly inefficient. Pollution by various bacterial organisms and algae is also become more common place with large scale problems occurring worldwide. Treatment using conventional methods can be difficult and in some cases ineffective. In order to treat water more efficiently advanced oxidation processes must be employed. Ultrasound is considered to be such an advanced oxidation process. Its ability to generate hydroxyl radicals at low temperatures has generated interest in the treatment of dye decolourisation and also in the oxidation of chlorophenols. In this study the decolourisation of several dyes in aqueous solution was investigated in the presence and absence of sonication at varying frequencies with the most effective being 850 kHz. Treatment of aromatic chlorophenols also produced degradation at 850 kHz. However biological systems appear to operate in a different manner with the most effective frequency being 20 kHz which is primarily a frequency used for disruption of cells rather than .OH radical generation. Copyright © (2010) by the International Congress on Acoustics.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishImprovement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatmentJo, H. J., Lee, S. M., Kim, H. J., Kim, J. G., Choi, J. S., Park, Y. K., & Jung, J. (2006). Improvement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by radiation treatment. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 268(1), 145-150. doi:10.1007/s10967-006-0140-7Antipollution systemsJournal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry2006In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD5/COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluents due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluentsn.a.Chlorophenolschlorophenol, 25167-80-0
EnglishExperimental assesment of nanofiltration for the removal of chlorophenols from aqueous effluentsMusteret, C. -., & Teodosiu, C. (2017). Experimental assesment of nanofiltration for the removal of chlorophenols from aqueous effluents. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16(4), 793-800.Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Engineering and Management Journal2017Chlorophenols, commonly found in industrial effluents, are considered as priority pollutants because they may cause severe environmental impacts and human health related problems. Nanofiltration (NF) represents an important option for the removal of chlorophenols present in aqueous effluents. This study presents some results on the performance of nanofiltration for the removal of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol from synthetic wastewaters considering the selection of adequate operating and cleaning conditions, flux recovery and removal efficiencies. A laboratory scale set-up fitted with AFC 40 membranes was used for the study of nanofiltration parameters influence (mode of operation, pressure and cleaning conditions) on the removal efficiencies, considering different initial concentrations of 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the aqueous solutions. The results show that, depending on process parameters and initial pollutant loads, it is possible to achieve removal efficiencies of up to 85% for both chlorophenols. The permeate flux for the different operational pressures varied from 20.25 L/m2h to 59.0 L/m2h. © 2017, Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi. All rights reserved.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9; 95-95-4; 120-83-2; 87-86-5; 95-57-8;
EnglishThe Degradation of Chlorophenols in Seawater Under Natural ConditionsWang, L. Z., Duan, Z. C., & Liang, X. M. (2017). The degradation of chlorophenols in seawater under natural conditions. International Journal of Environmental Research, 11(1), 49-54. doi:10.1007/s41742-017-0005-7Antipollution systemsInternational Journal of Environmental Research2017A simple and robust eradication process for chlorophenols in natural seawater under natural conditions, i.e., sunlight irradiation, air, was developed. It demonstrated that non-biological environmental factors, air and natural sunlight can lead to efficient degradation of chlorophenols [2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP)] in the seawater without any biological factors participating. It is noteworthy that the industrial effluents of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) production which contain some chlorophenols and unknown compounds were also degraded efficiently. Typically, a set amount of TCP was dissolved in 15 mL of seawater, previously passed through 0.45 μm filter to remove solid impurity in a test glass tube and placed out-of-doors under direct sunlight for a set period of time. It was shown that more than 99.3% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in the seawater were removed with only 9 h incubating, without agitation out of the door, and the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was higher than 83% after sunlight irradiation for 20 days. Our results suggest that inorganic feature environment factors will need to be included in future modeling studies for the environment self-degradation of pollutants. © 2017, University of Tehran.n.a.Chlorophenols106-48-9
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EnglishIndirect electrochemical oxidation of chlorophenols in dilute aqueous solutionsHuang, C. P., & Chu, C. -. (2012). Indirect electrochemical oxidation of chlorophenols in dilute aqueous solutions. Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States), 138(3), 375-385. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000518Antipollution systemsJournal of Environmental Engineering (United States)2012The indirect electrochemical oxidation of chlorophenols was studied. The process involved the simultaneous reduction of water to produce protons that were used for the subsequent electrochemical reduction of oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of ferrous ions, a Fenton's reagent was produced. In the process, upon reaction with hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ions were converted to the ferric state and were then regenerated at the cathode to recover ferrous ion'an important reactant in Fenton's reagent. A series of chlorophenols, including 4-mono-, 6-dichloro-, and 4-trichlorophenol, were studied. The degradation of monochlorophenols proceeded in decreasing order: 3-chlorophenol>2-chlorophenol∼4-chlorophenol; for dichloerophenols, the order was: 3, 5-dichlorophenol>3, 4-dichlorophenol>2, 3- dichlorophenol>2, 5-dichlorophenol>2, 4-dichlorophenol>2, 6-dichlorophenol;and for trichloro-phenols, the order followed: 2, 3, 5-trichlorophenol>2, 3, 6-trichlorophenol>2, 4, 5-trichlorophenol>2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol. The results indicated that the number and the relative locations (i.e., ortho, meta, or para) of chlorine substitution on the benzene ring played an important role in determining the rate and extent of chlorophenol oxidation. Regardless of the type of chlorine-substituted phenol, two major reaction pathways were responsible for the intermediate degradation of chlorophenols: hydroxyl radical attack (hydroxylation) and dechlorination. The detailed kinetics of the degradation of chlorophenols was studied in detail using 2-chlorophenol. Formic acid and acetic acid were the major end products that, in combination, contributed to 70% of the residual total organic carbon (TOC). Three other minor intermediates, 2-chloro-hydroquinone (2-Cl-HQ), 2-chloro-catechol (2-Cl-CA), and 4-hydroxyl,2,2'-dichlorodiphenyl ether (HDCDH), were observed; each contributed to a small percentage of the residual TOC. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EE.1943-7870.0000518Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishEfficient biodegradation of chlorophenols in aqueous phase by magnetically immobilized aniline-degrading Rhodococcus rhodochrous strainHou, J., Liu, F., Wu, N., Ju, J., & Yu, B. (2016). Efficient biodegradation of chlorophenols in aqueous phase by magnetically immobilized aniline-degrading rhodococcus rhodochrous strain. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 14(1) doi:10.1186/s12951-016-0158-0Antipollution systemsJournal of Nanobiotechnology2016Background: Chlorophenols are environmental contaminants, which are highly toxic to living beings due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and cytotoxic properties. Bacterial degradation has been considered a cost-effective and eco-friendly method of removing chlorophenols, compared to the traditional physical-chemical processes. Results: In this study, we first developed an efficient process for the biodegradation of chlorophenols by magnetically immobilized Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells. R. rhodochrous DSM6263 degrades chlorophenols following the first step of hydroxylation at the ortho-positions of chlorophenolic rings. The cells immobilized by k-carrageenan with 9g/L Fe3O4 nanoparticles could efficiently degrade 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol and their mixture, which were even higher than those by free cells. The magnetically nanoparticle-immobilized cells could be used at least for six cycles. Conclusion: Given the much easier separation by an external magnetic field and high degradation efficiency, this study provides a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the bioremediation process for chlorophenols in wastewater. © 2016 Hou et al.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4715327/Chlorophenols106-48-9 108-43-0 120-83-2 15950-66-0 25167-81-1 25167-82-2 25167-83-3 4901-51-3 576-24-9 583-78-8 58-90-2 591-35-5 59-50-7 609-19-8 87-65-0 87-86-5 88-06-2 933-75-5 933-78-8 935-95-5 95-57-8 95-77-2 95-95-4 25167-80-0
EnglishStudy on sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solutions by an insoluble copolymer containing β-cyclodextrin and polyamidoamine unitsLi, N., Mei, Z., & Wei, X. (2012). Study on sorption of chlorophenols from aqueous solutions by an insoluble copolymer containing β-cyclodextrin and polyamidoamine units. Chemical Engineering Journal, 192, 138-145. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2012.03.076Antipollution systemsChemical Engineering Journal2012A novel insoluble copolymer containing β-cyclodextrin (CD) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) units was prepared, characterized and used as a sorbent for the removal of 4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) from aqueous solutions. The effects of several operating variables such as pH and contact time were investigated. Results showed that the copolymer (PAMAM–CD) exhibited high sorption amount and acceptable sorption equilibrium time toward the three chlorophenols. The sorption amount of TCP was even up to 174.7 mg/g when the equilibrium concentration of TCP solution was 10 mg/L at 283 K. The order of sorption for the three chlorophenols was TCP > DCP > CP. The sorption kinetics followed both Ho–McKay and Weber–Morris equations. The equilibrium isotherm data were well fitted by Freundlich equation. PAMAM–CD was conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and it could be used as a promising sorbent.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385894712004366?via%3DihubChlorophenols4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP)
ChineseDetermination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in polyvinyl chloride plastics by gas chromatography-negative chemical ion/mass spectrometryXing, Y., Lin, Z., Feng, A., Wang, X., Gong, Y., & Chen, Z. (2015). Determination of short chain chlorinated paraffins in polyvinyl chloride plastics by gas chromatography-negative chemical ion/mass spectrometry. Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu), 33(2), 182-187. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1123.2014.10004Analytical methodsChinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu)2015A novel method was established to determine short chain chlorinated paraffins (SC-CPs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics by gas chromatography-negative chemical ion/mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS). Ultrasonic extraction was used to extract SCCPs from PVC plastics. The optimal extraction time was 1.5 h, and concentrated sulfuric acid was adopted to purify the extracted solution. Finally, SCCPs in a sample were detected by GC-NCI/MS at 160 ° and with methane reagent gas at 1.5 mL/min. This method was not influenced by medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in the sample, and accurate quantitation was made for SCCPs. Twelve batches of samples were analyzed and SCCPs were detected in each batch with the contents from 0.3×102mg/kg to 3.5×104mg/kg. With respect to European limitation of SC-CPs (1%), four batches of samples did not comply with the European regulation, and they accounted for 33.3%. Obviously, high SCCPs risk was presented in PVC plastics.http://pub.chinasciencejournal.com/ChineseJournalofChromatography/40274.jhtmlSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
ChinesePollution status and management control of short-chain chlorinated paraffinsZhao, M. -., Zou, L. -., Gao, Y., & Xu, L. (2017). Pollution status and management control of short-chain chlorinated paraffins. Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry, 37(2), 5-10. doi:10.16606/j.cnki.issn 0253-4320.2017.02.002Analytical methodsXiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry2017Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are the most important class of organic pollutants and attract the worldwide attentions. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have become a new candidate in the list of POPs due to their persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transportation and toxicity. In this study, the pollution characteristics of SCCPs are analyzed. The current production, utilization and pollution situation of SCCPs in China are investigated. The management and pollution control of SCCPs at home and abroad are summarized as well. © 2017, China National Chemical Information Center. All right reserved.n.a.SCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishRecent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A reviewVan Mourik, L. M., Leonards, P. E. G., Gaus, C., & De Boer, J. (2015). Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review. Chemosphere, 136, 259-272. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.045Analytical methodsChemosphere2015Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653515005081?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishInteraction study with rats given two flame retardants: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Bromkal 70-5 DE) and chlorinated paraffins (Cereclor 70L)Lundstedt-Enkel, K., Karlsson, D., & Darnerud, P. O. (2010). Interaction study with rats given two flame retardants: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (bromkal 70-5 DE) and chlorinated paraffins (cereclor 70L). Journal of Chemometrics, 24(11-12), 710-718. doi:10.1002/cem.1354Analytical methodsJournal of Chemometrics2010This study explored possible interaction effects on animal liver microsomal enzymes and thyroid hormones of two flame retardants: Bromkal 70-5 DE, a mixture of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (hereafter called PBDE); and Cereclor 70L, a mixture of chlorinated paraffins (hereafter called CP).Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to these compounds in dose ranges of 1.3-18.7 mg/kg bw/day (PBDE) and 1-55 mg/kg bw/day (CP), by gavage for 14 days. Biological responses were measured on liver somatic index (LSI) and hepatic enzyme activity of (a) ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (indicating CYP1A1 activity), (b) pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase (PROD) (indicating CYP2B activity) and (c) the phase II conjugation enzyme uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UDP-GT). The levels of total and free thyroxine hormone in rat plasma (TT4 and FT4, respectively) were also measured. In the experimental work, a Doehlert uniform shell design was used in order to select the combination of concentrations of PBDE and CP administered to the rats. Eight different combinations were used, including a control. The measured responses were modelled with multiple linear regression (MLR), giving response surface plots. The results showed strong synergism between the two flame retardants at one particular exposure combination, resulting in increased hepatic microsomal enzyme responses and decreased serum T4 concentrations. Notably, the exposure combination causing the most marked effects represented intermediate doses of both substances. The mechanisms behind the observed effects are unknown, but may involve induction or inhibition of enzyme systems. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cem.1354SCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishShort- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in fish, water and soils from the Iqaluit, Nunavut (Canada), areaDick, T. A., Gallagher, C. P., & Tomy, G. T. (2010). Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in fish, water and soils from the iqaluit, nunavut (canada), area. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 7(4), 387-401. doi:10.1504/WRSTSD.2010.032747Analytical methodsWorld Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development2010Concentrations and sources of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (CP) were examined in the city of Iqaluit, Nunavut. Tissues from the Arctic char and the ninespine stickleback were analysed, as were terrestrial sediments near landfills. Water and sediments from local streams were tested along with water draining from the sewage lagoon and sediments near the lagoon's outlet. Significant concentrations of CP in sediment and water from some sites indicate ongoing local sources of contamination, although concentrations in Arctic char do not appear to pose a risk for secondary consumers. Areas associated with waste disposal had higher levels of CP. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=32747SCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
ChineseAnalytical Methods, Environmental Pollutions and Toxicity of Short Chain Chlorinated ParaffinsWang, Y., Wang, Y., & Jiang, G. (2017). Analytical methods, environmental pollutions and toxicity of short chain chlorinated paraffins. Progress in Chemistry, 29(9), 919-929. doi:10.7536/PC170504ToxicityProgress in Chemistry2017Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), as a class of emerging organic pollutants, have been listed in the candidates of potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention(SC)in 2006, and the POPs review committees considered SCCPs to fulfill the criteria of Annex A of the SC in 2017. Due to their broad industrial production and application in China, SCCPs have been found in high levels in different environmental matrixes. In this paper, the sources, releases, analytical methods, the current pollution situation in various environmental matrixes and the toxicity of SCCPs are reviewed. Meanwhile, the problems in present studies and the future research demands are also summarized in this paper. © 2017, Editorial Office of Progress in Chemistry. All right reserved.http://manu56.magtech.com.cn/progchem/CN/abstract/abstract11954.shtmlSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishRecent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A reviewVan Mourik, L. M., Leonards, P. E. G., Gaus, C., & De Boer, J. (2015). Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review. Chemosphere, 136, 259-272. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.05.045Analytical methodsChemosphere2015Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653515005081?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishScreening of Chlorinated Paraffins and Unsaturated Analogues in Commercial Mixtures: Confirmation of Their Occurrences in the AtmosphereLi, T., Gao, S., Ben, Y., Zhang, H., Kang, Q., & Wan, Y. (2018). Screening of chlorinated paraffins and unsaturated analogues in commercial mixtures: Confirmation of their occurrences in the atmosphere. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(4), 1862-1870. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b04761Analytical methodsEnvironmental Science and Technology2018Characterizing the detailed compositions of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) commercial mixtures is crucial to understand their environmental sources, fates, and potential risks. In this study, dichloromethane (DCM)-enhanced UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS analysis combined with characteristic isotope chlorine peaks is applied to screen all CPs and their structural analogues in the three most commonly produced CP commercial mixtures (CP-42, CP-52, and CP-70). Mass fractions of total short-chain CPs (SCCPs), medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and long-chain CPs (LCCPs) ranged from 0.64 to 31.9%, 0.64 to 21.8%, and 0.04 to 43.9%, respectively, in the three commercial mixtures. 113 unsaturated SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were identified in the commercial mixtures. The detailed mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated CPs with carbon numbers of 10-30, chlorine numbers of 5-28, and unsaturated degrees of 0-7 were characterized in all commercial mixtures. Occurrences of the predominant saturated and unsaturated CPs were further confirmed in air samples collected in Guangdong Province, one of the major CP production areas in China, over one year. The profiles of the detected compounds indicated that LCCPs in air samples might come mainly from the production and usage of CP-52, and unsaturated C24-29-LCCPs were specifically originated from CP-70 used in the area. © 2018 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.7b04761SCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishSample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometryChen, L., Huang, Y., Han, S., Feng, Y., Jiang, G., Tang, C., . . . Zhang, S. (2013). Sample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1274, 36-43. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2012.12.010Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2013Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541ngg-1 (mean: 84ngg-1). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl6/7) C10- and C11- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967312018511?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
ChineseStudy on developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins C10 (50.2% Cl) in zebrafish embryosLiu, L., Ma, W., Liu, L., & Li, Y. (2016). Study on developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins C10 (50.2% cl) in zebrafish embryos. Harbin Gongye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, 48(8), 127-130 and 140. doi:10.11918/j.issn.0367-6234.2016.08.021ToxicityHarbin Gongye Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology2016A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model was applied to evaluate the developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). Death rates, hatching rates, malformation rates and body length were observed after the zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of C10 (50.2% Cl) separately for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results indicated that C10 (50.2% Cl) could exert lethal and sub-lethal effects on the early life stage of zebrafish. Higher concentrations of C10 (50.2% Cl) ( 1 000 and 10 000 μg/L) could not only cause significant death rates increase to 100% after 96 h exposure and hating delay after 48 h exposure, but also induce a series of malformations, including spinal curvature, yolk deformity, pericardial edema, malformation of tail and uninflated swim bladder. Since the growth inhibition of juvenile zebrafish caused by C10 (50.2% Cl) on the exposure concentrations no matter high or low, SCCPs might be a risk to the aquatic ecology and fish development. © 2016, Editorial Board of Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology. All right reserved.http://hit.alljournals.cn/hitxb_cn/ch/reader/view_abstract.aspx?doi=10.11918/j.issn.0367-6234.2016.08.021SCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishOccurrence, fate and ecological risk of chlorinated paraffins in Asia: A reviewWei, G. -., Liang, X. -., Li, D. -., Zhuo, M. -., Zhang, S. -., Huang, Q. -., . . . Yuan, Z. -. (2016). Occurrence, fate and ecological risk of chlorinated paraffins in asia: A review. Environment International, 92-93, 373-387. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.04.002ToxicityEnvironment International2016Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), complex mixtures of polychlorinated alkanes, are widely used in various industries and are thus ubiquitous in the receiving environment. The present study comprehensively reviewed the occurrence, fate and ecological risk of CPs in various environmental matrices in Asia. Releases from the production and consumption of CPs or CP-containing materials, wastewater discharge and irrigation, sewage sludge application, long-range atmospheric transport and aerial deposition have been found to be most likely sources and transport mechanisms for the dispersion of CPs in various environmental matrices, such as air, water, sediment, soil and biota. CPs can be bioaccumulated in biota and biomagnified through food webs, likely causing toxic ecological effects in organisms and posing health risks to humans. Inhalation, dust ingestion and dietary intake are strongly suggested as the major routes of human exposure. Research gaps are discussed to highlight the perspectives of future research to improve future efforts regarding the analysis of CPs, the environmental occurrence and elimination of CPs, the total environmental pressure, and the risks to organisms and populations. © 2016.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016301313?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishGlobal production, use, and emission volumes of short-chain chlorinated paraffins – A minimum scenarioGlüge, J., Wang, Z., Bogdal, C., Scheringer, M., & Hungerbühler, K. (2016). Global production, use, and emission volumes of short-chain chlorinated paraffins – A minimum scenario. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 1132-1146. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.105ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2016Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) show high persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity (PBT properties). Consequently, restrictions on production and use have been enforced in several countries/regions. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants recognized the PBT properties and long-range transport potential of SCCPs in 2015 and is now evaluating a possible global phase-out or restrictions. In this context, it is relevant to know which countries are producing/using SCCPs and in which amounts, and which applications contribute most to their environmental emissions. To provide a first comprehensive overview, we review and integrate all publicly available data on the global production and use of both chlorinated paraffins (CPs) as a whole and specifically SCCPs. Considerable amount of data on production/use of CPs and SCCPs are missing. Based on the available data and reported emission factors, we estimate the past and current worldwide SCCP emissions from individual applications. Using the available data as a minimum scenario, we conclude: (i) SCCP production and use is increasing, with the current worldwide production volume being 165,000 t/year at least, whereas the global production of total CPs exceeds 1 million t/year. (ii) The worldwide release of SCCPs from their production and use to air, surface water, and soil between 1935 and 2012 has been in the range of 1690–41,400 t, 1660–105,000 t, and 9460–81,000 t, respectively. (iii) The SCCP manufacture and use in PVC, the use in metal working applications and sealants/adhesives, and the use in plastics and rubber contribute most to the emissions to air, surface water, and soil. Thus, the decrease in the environmental emissions of SCCPs requires reduction of SCCP use in (almost) all applications. (iv) Emissions due to the disposal of waste SCCPs cannot be accurately estimated, because relevant information is missing. Instead, we conduct a scenario analysis to provide some insights into it. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716318009?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishEffects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on soil organismsBezchlebová, J., Černohlávková, J., Kobetičová, K., Lána, J., Sochová, I., & Hofman, J. (2007). Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on soil organisms. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 67(2), 206-211. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2006.12.015ToxicityEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety2007Despite the fact that chlorinated paraffins have been produced in relatively large amounts, and high concentrations have been found in sewage sludge applied to soils, there is little information on their concentrations in soils and the effect on soil organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of chlorinated paraffins in soils. The effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (64% chlorine content) on invertebrates (Eisenia fetida, Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus albidus, Enchytraeus crypticus, Caenorhabditis elegans) and substrate-induced respiration of indigenous microorganisms were studied. Differences were found in the sensitivity of the tested organisms to short-chain chlorinated paraffins. F. candida was identified as the most sensitive organism with LC50 and EC50 values of 5733 and 1230 mg/kg, respectively. Toxicity results were compared with available studies and the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of 5.28 mg/kg was estimated for the soil environment, based on our data. © 2007.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651306002685?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
ChineseAnalytical Methods, Environmental Pollutions and Toxicity of Short Chain Chlorinated ParaffinsWang, Y., Wang, Y., & Jiang, G. (2017). Analytical methods, environmental pollutions and toxicity of short chain chlorinated paraffins. Progress in Chemistry, 29(9), 919-929. doi:10.7536/PC170504ToxicityProgress in Chemistry2017Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), as a class of emerging organic pollutants, have been listed in the candidates of potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention(SC)in 2006, and the POPs review committees considered SCCPs to fulfill the criteria of Annex A of the SC in 2017. Due to their broad industrial production and application in China, SCCPs have been found in high levels in different environmental matrixes. In this paper, the sources, releases, analytical methods, the current pollution situation in various environmental matrixes and the toxicity of SCCPs are reviewed. Meanwhile, the problems in present studies and the future research demands are also summarized in this paper. © 2017, Editorial Office of Progress in Chemistry. All right reserved.http://manu56.magtech.com.cn/progchem/CN/abstract/abstract11954.shtmlSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishAssessment of the endocrine-disrupting effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in in vitro modelsZhang, Q., Wang, J., Zhu, J., Liu, J., Zhang, J., & Zhao, M. (2016). Assessment of the endocrine-disrupting effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in in vitro models. Environment International, 94, 43-50. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.007ToxicityEnvironment International2016Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), which are candidate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the Stockholm Convention, are of great concern because of their persistent bioaccumulation, long-range transport and potential adverse health effects. However, data on the endocrine-disrupting effects of SCCPs remain scarce. In this study, we first adopted two in vitro models (reporter gene assays and H295R cell line) to investigate the endocrine-disrupting effects of three SCCPs (C10-40.40%, C10-66.10% and C11-43.20%) via receptor mediated and non-receptor mediated pathway. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that all test chemicals significantly induced estrogenic effects, which were mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), in the following order: C11-43.20% > C10-66.10% > C10-40.40%. Notably, C10-40.40% and C10-66.10% also demonstrated remarkable anti-estrogenic activities. Only C11-43.20% showed glucocorticoid receptor-mediated (GR) antagonistic activity, with a RIC20 value of 2.6 × 10-8 mol/L. None of the SCCPs showed any agonistic or antagonistic activities against thyroid receptor β (TRβ). Meanwhile, all test SCCPs stimulated the secretion of 17β-estradiol (E2). Both C10-66.10% and C11-43.20% increased the production of cortisol at a high level in H295R cell lines. In order to explore the possible mechanism underlying the endocrine-disrupting effects of SCCPs through the non-receptor pathway, the mRNA levels of 9 steroidogenic genes were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). StAR, 17βHSD, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP19 and CYP21 were upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner by all chemicals. The data provided here emphasized that comprehensive assessments of the health and ecological risks of emerging contaminants, such as SCCPs, are of great concern and should be investigated further. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016301805?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishChlorinated paraffins in the environment: A review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015van Mourik, L. M., Gaus, C., Leonards, P. E. G., & de Boer, J. (2016). Chlorinated paraffins in the environment: A review on their production, fate, levels and trends between 2010 and 2015. Chemosphere, 155, 415-428. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.04.037ToxicityChemosphere2016This review provides an update on information regarding the production volumes, regulations, as well as the environmental levels, trends, fate and human exposure to chlorinated paraffin mixtures (CPs). CPs encompas thousands congeners with varying properties and environmental fate. Based on their carbon chain lengths, CPs are divided into short- (SCCPs; C10-13), medium- (MCCPs; C14-17) and long- (LCCPs; C ≥ 18) chained groups. They are high production volume and persistent chemicals, and their cumulative global production already surpasses that of other persistent anthropogenic chemicals (e.g. PCBs). However, international regulations are still curbed by insufficient information on their levels and fate, including bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. An increasing number of studies since 2010 demonstrate that CPs are detected in almost every compartment in the environment, including remote areas. Consensus on the long range transport and high bioaccumulation potential (BCF > 5000 & TMF > 1) has recently been reached for SCCPs, fulfilling criteria under the Stockholm Convention for designation as a persistent organic pollutant; information on their levels is, however, still sparse for many countries. M/LCCPs have received comparatively little attention in the past, but as replacement chemicals for SCCPs, MCCPs are now considered in an increasing number of studies. The limited data to date suggests MCCPs are widely used. Although data on their bioaccumulation and toxicity are still inconclusive, MCCPs and LCCPs with C<20 may also have a bioaccumulation potential. Considering this and their high production volumes, use, and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment, a better understanding on the levels and fate of all CPs is needed.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516305112?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishShort-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) induced thyroid disruption by enhancement of hepatic thyroid hormone influx and degradation in male Sprague Dawley ratsGong, Y., Zhang, H., Geng, N., Xing, L., Fan, J., Luo, Y., . . . Chen, J. (2018). Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) induced thyroid disruption by enhancement of hepatic thyroid hormone influx and degradation in male sprague dawley rats. Science of the Total Environment, 625, 657-666. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.251ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2018Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are known to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in rodents. However, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats received SCCPs (0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day) via gavage once a day for consecutive 28 days. Plasma and hepatic TH concentrations, thyrocyte structure, as well as thyroid and hepatic mRNA and protein levels of genes associated with TH homeostasis were examined. Moreover, we performed molecular docking to predict interactions between constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key regulator in xenobiotic-induced TH metabolism, with different SCCP molecules. Exposure to SCCPs significantly decreased the circulating free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, but increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by a feedback mechanism. Decreased hepatic T4 and increased hepatic T3 levels were also seen after 100 mg/kg/day SCCPs exposure. SCCPs didn't show any significant effects on the expression of thyroid TH synthesis genes or thyrocyte structure. However, stimulation effects were observed for mRNA and protein levels of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 and organic anion transporter 2, suggesting an accelerated TH metabolism in rat liver. The increased cytochrome P450 2B1 but not 1A1 mRNA and protein levels indicated that the CAR signaling was activated by SCCPs exposure. According to docking analysis, SCCPs form hydrophobic interactions with CAR and the binding affinity shows dependency on chlorine content. Overall, our data showed that CAR implicated enhancement of hepatic TH influx and degradation could be the main cause for SCCPs induced TH deficiency in male rats. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717336859?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishEnhanced photocatalytic activity of degrading short chain chlorinated paraffins over reduced graphene oxide/CoFe2O4/Ag nanocompositeChen, X., Zhao, Q., Li, X., & Wang, D. (2016). Enhanced photocatalytic activity of degrading short chain chlorinated paraffins over reduced graphene oxide/CoFe2O4/Ag nanocomposite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 479, 89-97. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2016.06.053Antipollution systemsJournal of Colloid and Interface Science2016Short chain chlorinated paraffins have recently attracted great attention because of their environmental persistence and biological toxicity as an important organic pollutant. In this work, reduced graphene oxide/CoFe2O4/Ag (RGO/CoFe2O4/Ag) nanocomposite was prepared and employed for photocatalytic degradation of short chain chlorinated paraffins. The process of photocatalytic degradation of short chain chlorinated paraffins over RGO/CoFe2O4/Ag under visible light (λ > 400 nm) was investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the related mechanisms were proposed. An apparent degradation ratio of 91.9% over RGO/CoFe2O4/Ag could be obtained under visible light illumination of 12 h, while only about 21.7% was obtained with commercial P25 TiO2 under the same experimental conditions, which demonstrates that the RGO/CoFe2O4/Ag nanocomposite is a potential candidate for effective photocatalytic removal of short chain chlorinated paraffins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021979716304180?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishDechlorination of short chain chlorinated paraffins by nanoscale zero-valent ironZhang, Z. -., Lu, M., Zhang, Z. -., Xiao, M., & Zhang, M. (2012). Dechlorination of short chain chlorinated paraffins by nanoscale zero-valent iron. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 243, 105-111. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.004Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2012In this study, nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles were synthesized and used for the reductive dehalogenation of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the laboratory. The results show that the dechlorination rate of chlorinated n-decane (CP10) by NZVI increased with decreased solution pH. Increasing the loading of NZVI enhanced the dechlorination rate of CP10. With an increase in temperature, the degradation rate increased. The reduction of CP10 by NZVI was accelerated with increasing the concentration of humic acid up to 15mg/L but then was inhibited. The dechlorination of CP10 within the initial 18h followed pseudo-first order rate model. The formation of intermediate products indicates a stepwise dechlorination pathway of SCCPs by NZVI. The carbon chain length and chlorination degree of SCCPs have a polynominal impact on dechlorination reactions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389412010096?via%3DihubSCCP & Chlorinated Paraffins85535-84-8 85535-85-9 85535-86-0
EnglishPer- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in Kampala, UgandaDalahmeh, S., Tirgani, S., Komakech, A. J., Niwagaba, C. B., & Ahrens, L. (2018). Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water, soil and plants in wetlands and agricultural areas in kampala, uganda. Science of the Total Environment, 631-632, 660-667. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.024Analytical methodsScience of The Total Environment2018Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6–9.1 ng L−1) than in the corresponding influent (3.4–5.1 ng L−1), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8.5–12 ng L−1) and Lake Victoria (1.0–2.5 ng L−1), due to dilution, sorption to sediment and uptake by plants in the wetland. ∑PFAS concentrations were within the range 1700–7900 pg g−1 dry weight (dw) in soil and 160 pg g−1 dw (maize cobs) to 380 pg g−1 dw (sugarcane stems) in plants. The dominant PFASs were perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in wastewater, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in surface water, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in soil and perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) and PFOA in different plant tissues, reflecting PFAS-specific partitioning behaviour in different matrices. Soil-water partitioning coefficient (log Kd) in wetland soil under yam was lowest for short-chain PFHxA (1.9–2.3 L kg−1) and increased with increasing chain length to 2.8–3.1 L kg−1 for perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) and 2.8–3.1 L kg−1 for perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS). The log Koc values ranged between 2.2 and 3.6 L kg−1, with the highest log Koc estimated for long-chain perfluorocarbon PFASs (i.e. PFUnDA 3.2–3.5 L kg−1 and PFOS 3.2–3.6 L kg−1). The concentration ratio (CR) between plants and soil was <1 for all PFASs and plant species, with the highest CR estimated for PFHpA (0.65–0.67) in sugarcane stem and PFBS (0.53–0.59) in yam root. Overall, this investigation demonstrated PFASs entry into the terrestrial food chain and drinking water resources in Kampala, Uganda. Source identification, assessment of impacts on human health and the environment, and better wastewater treatment technologies are needed.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718307794?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishAutomated bundled hollow fiber array-liquid-phase microextraction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis of perfluorinated compounds in aqueous mediaGoh, S. X. L., & Lee, H. K. (2018). Automated bundled hollow fiber array-liquid-phase microextraction with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis of perfluorinated compounds in aqueous media. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1019, 74-83. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2018.03.003Analytical methodsAnalytica Chimica Acta2018An automated bundled hollow fiber array (BHF)-liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) methodology in combination with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental aqueous matrices. Eight PFCs were considered, including perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid, perfluorotetradecanoic acid. Experimental parameters influencing extraction efficiency, such as number of hollow fibers in the BHF extraction device, type of extraction and desorption solvent, extraction conditions (stirring rate, temperature and duration), elution conditions and the salting out effect were examined. Under the most favourable conditions, enrichment factors of between 9 and 40 were achieved for the target compounds when extracting from 10 mL of sample. Good intra and inter-day precision were obtained with relative standard deviations of less than 12%. The linearity range investigated was between 5 and 10,000 ng L−1, with coefficients of determination (r2) ≥ 0.991. The developed method was applied for the UHPLC-MS/MS determination of environmental PFCs in industrial water discharge samples. The automation of BHF-LPME together with UHPLC-MS/MS rendered the method efficient, rapid and sensitive to determine PFCs, with the possibility of on-site real-time monitoring of contaminants in environmental waters. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267018303684?via%3DihubPFCsPFHpA 375-85-9
PFOA 335-67-1
PFNA 375-95-1
PFDA 335-76-2
PFUnA 2058-94-8
PFDoA 307-55-1
PFTrA 72629-94-8
PFTeA 376-06-7
EnglishTracing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils along the urbanizing coastal area of Bohai and Yellow Seas, ChinaMeng, J., Wang, T., Song, S., Wang, P., Li, Q., Zhou, Y., & Lu, Y. (2018). Tracing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soils along the urbanizing coastal area of bohai and yellow seas, china. Environmental Pollution, 238, 404-412. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.056Analytical methodsEnvironmental Pollution2018With the shift of fluorine chemical industry from developed countries to China and increasing demand for fluorine chemical products, occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in production and application areas has attracted more attention. In this study, 153 soil samples were collected from 21 cities along the urbanizing coastal area of the Bohai and Yellow Seas. PFASs in this area were relatively higher, compared with other study areas. The concentrations ranged from 2.76 to 64.0 ng g−1, and those in most sites were between 2.76 and 13.9 ng g−1, with a predominance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Among the 21 coastal cities, contaminations of PFASs in Zibo, Nantong and Binzhou were elevated, which was likely affected by local fluorine chemical plants, equipment manufacturing and chemical industry, respectively. The total emissions of PFOA and PFOS were similar, with amount of 4431 kg and 4335 kg, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was the largest source, accounting for 93.2% of total PFOA and 69.6% of PFOS, respectively. In addition, due to application of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) and sulfluramid, disposal of sewage sludge and stacking of solid waste, emission of PFOA and PFOS to soil was 1617 kg, accounting for 9.29% of the whole China. In general, pollution in Jiangsu, Shandong and Tianjin was more serious than those in Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with industrialization level and size of industrial sectors emitting PFASs. Atmospheric deposition contributed 8766 kg PFOA and PFOS for coastal areas along the Bohai and Yellow Seas, which accounted for 70.8% of the total sources. © 2018 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749118301775?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishDatabook of green solventsAnna, & Wypych, G. (2014). Databook of green solvents. Databook of green solvents (pp. 1-574) doi:10.1016/B978-1-895198-82-9.50001-4Analytical methodsDatabook of Green Solvents (Book Chapter)2014Solvents have a major role to play in the environmental and sustainability agenda, and many currently used solvents have to be replaced, either because of regulations or because of increasing demands for safer solvents and produce them in safer way. Some solvents previously advertised as green solvents have to be replaced according to the present regulations, and these are costly and risky operations. This book not only gives data on carefully selected, commercially available, green solvents but it also gives expert advice on how to assess and qualify green solvents. Physical properties are included, as are health and safety considerations (such as carcinogenicity, reproduction/developmental toxicity, flammability) and first aid guidance. Emphasis is given in particular to cost-saving and more efficient replacements for more toxic solvents. Detailed information is also given for usage considerations, including outstanding properties, potential substitutes, features and benefits for each solvent and for which products the solvent is recommended. • More than 300 green solvents included, from biodegradable and biorenewable solvents to siloxanes and perfluorocarbons. • Practical information for use in the lab and the field, including recommended processing methods, recommended dosages, and potential substitutes • Provides critical health, safety, and environmental data, to help production chemists and engineers in selecting the correct solvent. © 2014 ChemTec Publishing Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781895198829500014PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishParticle size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids during the haze period in the megacity of ShanghaiGuo, M., Lyu, Y., Xu, T., Yao, B., Song, W., Li, M., . . . Li, X. (2018). Particle size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids during the haze period in the megacity of shanghai. Environmental Pollution, 234, 9-19. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.128Analytical methodsEnvironmental Pollution2018This study presents the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) during the haze period. Size-segregated haze aerosols were collected from an urban location in Shanghai using an eight-stage air sampler. The samples were analyzed for eight PFAAs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The quantification results showed that the concentrations of particle-bound Σ 8PFAAs ranged from 0.26 to 1.90 ng m−3 (mean: 1.44 ng m−3). All of the measured PFAAs particle size distributions had a bimodal mode that peaked respectively in accumulation size range (0.4 < Dp < 2.1 μm) and coarse size ranges (Dp > 2.1 μm), but the width of each distribution somewhat varied by compound. The emission source, molecular weight, and volatility of the PFAAs were important factors influencing the size distribution of particle-bound PFAAs. Of these compounds, PFUnDA presented a strong accumulation in the fine size range (average 75% associated with particles <2.1 μm), followed by PFOA (69%) and PFDA (64%). The human risk assessment of PFOS via inhalation was addressed and followed the same pattern as the size distribution, with a 2-fold higher risk for the fine particle fraction compared to the coarse particle fraction at urban sites. Approximately 30.3–82.0% of PFAA deposition (∑PFAA: 72.5%) in the alveolar region was associated with particles <2.1 μm, although the contribution of fine particles to the total PFAAs concentration in urban air was only 28–57% (∑8PFAAs: 48%). These results suggested that fine particles are significant contributors to the deposition of PFAAs in the alveolar region of the lung. Particle Size distribution and respiratory deposition estimates of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids during the haze period in Shanghai were demonstrated. © 2017 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749117324508?via%3DihubPFCsperfluorodecanoic acid, 335-76-2; perfluorododecanoic acid, 307-55-1; perfluorohexanesulfonic acid, 355-46-4; perfluorononanoic acid, 375-95-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1; perfluoroundecanoic acid, 2058-94-8
EnglishPerfluoroalkyl acids in surface waters and tapwater in the Qiantang River watershed—Influences from paper, textile, and leather industriesLu, G. -., Gai, N., Zhang, P., Piao, H. -., Chen, S., Wang, X. -., . . . Yang, Y. -. (2017). Perfluoroalkyl acids in surface waters and tapwater in the qiantang river watershed—Influences from paper, textile, and leather industries. Chemosphere, 185, 610-617. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.139Analytical methodsChemosphere2017Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as multi-purpose surfactants or water/oil repellents. In order to understand the contamination level and compositional profiles of PFAAs in aqueous environment in textile, leather, and paper making industrial areas, surface waters and tap waters were collected along the watershed of the Qiantang River where China's largest textile, leather, and paper making industrial bases are located. For comparison, surface water and tapwater samples were also collected in Hangzhou and its adjacent areas. 17 PFAAs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results show that the total concentrations of PFAAs (ΣPFAAs) in the Qiantang River waters ranged from 106.1 to 322.9 ng/L, averaging 164.2 ng/L. The contamination levels have been found to be extremely high, comparable to the levels of the most serious PFAA contamination in surface waters of China. The PFAA composition profiles were characterized by the dominant PFOA (average 58.1% of the total PFAAs), and PFHxA (average 18.8%). The ΣPFAAs in tap water ranged from 9.5 to 174.8 ng/L, showing PFAA compositional pattern similar to the surface waters. Good correlations between PFAA composition profiles in tap waters and the surface waters were observed. © 2017 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653517310317?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishGetting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludgeUlrich, H., Freier, K. P., & Gierig, M. (2016). Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge. Chemosphere, 161, 527-535. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.048Analytical methodsChemosphere2016Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg−1 dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg−1 dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a−1 in 2008 to 1.5 t a−1 in 2013. © 2016 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516309432?via%3DihubPFCsperfluorodecanoic acid, 335-76-2; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1; fluorocarbon, 11072-16-5;375-85-9
; 307-55-1; 375-73-5; 355-46-4; 754-91-6; 1763-23-1; 375-95-1;
EnglishSystematic determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in outdoor jacketsGremmel, C., Frömel, T., & Knepper, T. P. (2016). Systematic determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in outdoor jackets. Chemosphere, 160, 173-180. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.06.043Analytical methodsChemosphere2016Sixteen outdoor jackets were purchased in 2011/12 and analyzed for 23 different perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The jackets were selected based on their origin of production, price, market, and textile, such as polyester, nylon, polyamide, and content of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membranes. Two robust analytical methods based on high pressure liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry, as well as two liquid extractions, were developed enabling the analysis of PFASs with widely different physico-chemical properties. The jackets were found to contain PFASs in a range between 0.03 and 719 μg/m2. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was omnipresent (0.02–171 μg/m2), although at lower concentrations compared to the precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (<0.001–698 μg/m2). Perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their putative precursors, in particular perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, were detected much less frequently at concentrations up to 5 μg/m2. To determine the effect of the volatility of FTOHs, four selected jackets were stored in a sealed bag in the dark at room temperature and re-analyzed after 3.5 years. Only 10%–20% of the initial concentration of 8:2-FTOH and 20%–50% of 10:2-FTOH were found, whereas the concentrations of PFOA and perfluorodecanoic acid increased significantly. This supports the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in textiles are also strongly dependent on age, and conditions of transport and storage. © 2016 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516308013?via%3DihubPFCs107-13-1; 335-67-1; 335-76-2; 1763-23-1;
EnglishDetermination of perfluorinated compounds in packaging materials and textiles using pressurized liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometryLv, G., Wang, L., Liu, S., & Li, S. (2009). Determination of perfluorinated compounds in packaging materials and textiles using pressurized liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Sciences, 25(3), 425-429. doi:10.2116/analsci.25.425Analytical methodsAnalytical Sciences2009A simultaneous determination method of trace amounts of perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in packaging materials and textiles, has been developed, using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The perfluorinated compounds were primarily extracted from the samples by a PLE procedure, in which the parameters were optimized by response surface methodology. The solvent was then removed by blowing nitrogen and a silylation step was carried out with N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The silylated compounds were identified and quantified by GC/MS. The proposed method was applied to determine the PFOA and PFOS in polytetrafluoroethylene packaging materials and textiles, where the detection limits of the two compounds were 1.6 and 13.9 ng mL-1, respectively. The results showed that the concentrations of PFOA and PFOS in the packaging materials and textiles ranged from 17.5 to 45.9 and 33.7 to 81.3 ng g-1, respectively. © The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/analsci/25/3/25_3_425/_articlePFCsfluorocarbon, 11072-16-5; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1;

perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1763-23-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishA method for the low-level (ng g-1) determination of perfluorooctanoate in paper and textile by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometryStadalius, M., Connolly, P., L'Empereur, K., Flaherty, J. M., Isemura, T., Kaiser, M. A., . . . Noguchi, M. (2006). A method for the low-level (ng g-1) determination of perfluorooctanoate in paper and textile by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1123(1), 10-14. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.03.037Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography A2006The determination of perfluorooctanoate (PFO) in articles of commerce has become increasingly important to understand if treated products are a possible source of PFO. An LC-MS/MS method for the determination of PFO in paper and textile using a dual labeled 13C-PFOA internal standard was successfully developed and validated. Residues of PFO were determined using an isocratic, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with an ammonium acetate/methanol buffer. Ions monitored were 413 (parent) and 369 (daughter) for PFO and 415 (parent) and 370 (daughter) for dual labeled 13C-PFOA internal standard. As a precaution against ubiquitous PFO that occasionally occurs in mobile phase or instrument components, two Hypercarb™ cartridges (4 mm) were placed before the HPLC injector. Any PFO that was captured by the cartridges was removed before each injection by flushing the system with 100% methanol prior to equilibration with the isocratic mobile phase. Overall recovery and standard deviation over a 3 day validation regimen for samples (n = 54-55) fortified with PFOA at 5, 50, and 200 ng g-1 were 114 ± 4.9% for textile and 110 ± 7.6% for paper. The results also established a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 ng g-1 in textile and 2 ng g-1 in paper based upon S/N of the 5.0 ng g-1 fortification versus the untreated paper and textile. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967306005954?via%3DihubPFCsperfluorooctane, 307-34-6;
perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishSerum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compoundsGrandjean, P., Andersen, E. W., Budtz-Jørgensen, E., Nielsen, F., Mølbak, K. R., Weihe, P., & Heilmann, C. (2012). Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(4), 391-397. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.2034ToxicityJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association2012Context: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood. Objective: To determine whether PFC exposure is associated with antibody response to childhood vaccinations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study of a birth cohort from the National Hospital in the Faroe Islands. A total of 656 consecutive singleton births were recruited during 1999-2001, and 587 participated in follow-up through 2008. Main Outcome Measures: Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Results: Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of -39% (95% CI, -55% to -17%) in the diphtheria antibody concentration. PFCs in the child's serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years, except that the tetanus antibody level following PFOS exposure was not statistically significant. In a structural equation model, a 2-fold greater concentration of major PFCs in child serum was associated with a difference of -49% (95% CI, -67% to -23%) in the overall antibody concentration. A 2-fold increase in PFOS and PFOA concentrations at age 5 years was associated with odds ratios between 2.38 (95% CI, 0.89 to 6.35) and 4.20 (95% CI, 1.54 to 11.44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years. Conclusion: Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years. ©2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/1104903PFCs335-76-2; 375-95-1; 335-67-1; 1763-23-1
EnglishHalf-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workersOlsen, G. W., Burris, J. M., Ehresman, D. J., Froelich, J. W., Seacat, A. M., Butenhoff, J. L., & Zobel, L. R. (2007). Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(9), 1298-1305. doi:10.1289/ehp.10009ToxicityEnvironmental Health Perspectives2007Background
The presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been reported in humans and wildlife. Pharmacokinetic differences have been observed in laboratory animals.

Objective
The purpose of this observational study was to estimate the elimination half-life of PFOS, PFHS, and PFOA from human serum.

Methods
Twenty-six (24 male, 2 female) retired fluorochemical production workers, with no additional occupational exposure, had periodic blood samples collected over 5 years, with serum stored in plastic vials at −80°C. At the end of the study, we used HPLC-mass spectrometry to analyze the samples, with quantification based on the ion ratios for PFOS and PFHS and the internal standard 18O2-PFOS. For PFOA, quantitation was based on the internal standard 13C2-PFOA.

Results
The arithmetic mean initial serum concentrations were as follows: PFOS, 799 ng/mL (range, 145–3,490); PFHS, 290 ng/mL (range, 16–1,295); and PFOA, 691 ng/mL (range, 72–5,100). For each of the 26 subjects, the elimination appeared linear on a semi-log plot of concentration versus time; therefore, we used a first-order model for estimation. The arithmetic and geometric mean half-lives of serum elimination, respectively, were 5.4 years [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.9–6.9] and 4.8 years (95% CI, 4.0–5.8) for PFOS; 8.5 years (95% CI, 6.4–10.6) and 7.3 years (95% CI, 5.8–9.2) for PFHS; and 3.8 years (95% CI, 3.1–4.4) and 3.5 years (95% CI, 3.0–4.1) for PFOA.

Conclusions
Based on these data, humans appear to have a long half-life of serum elimination of PFOS, PFHS, and PFOA. Differences in species-specific pharmacokinetics may be due, in part, to a saturable renal resorption process.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1964923/PFCs335-67-1; 355-46-4; 1763-23-1; 335-67-1
EnglishPartition of environmental chemicals between maternal and fetal blood and tissuesNeedham, L. L., Grandjean, P., Heinzow, B., Jørgensen, P. J., Nielsen, F., Sjödin, A., . . . Weihe, P. (2011). Partition of environmental chemicals between maternal and fetal blood and tissues. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(3), 1121-1126. doi:10.1021/es1019614ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2011Passage of environmental chemicals across the placenta hasimportant toxicological consequences, as well as for choosing samples for analysis and for interpreting the results. To obtain systematic data, we collected in 2000 maternal and cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and milk in connection with births in the Faroe Islands, where exposures to marine contaminants is increased. In 15 sample sets, we measured a total of 87 environmental chemicals, almost all of which were detected both in maternal and fetal tissues. The maternal serumlipid-based concentrations of organohalogencompounds averaged 1.7 times those of cord serum, 2.8 times those of cord tissue and placenta, and 0.7 those of milk. For organohalogen compounds detectable in all matrices, a high degree of correlation between concentrations in maternal serum and the other tissues investigated was generally observed (r2 > 0.5). Greater degree of chlorination resulted in lower transfer from maternal serum into milk. Concentrations of pentachlorbenzene, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, and several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners with low chlorination were higher in fetal samples and showed poor correlation with maternal levels. Perfluorinated compounds occurred in lower concentrations in cord serum than in maternal serum. Cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium were all detected in fetal samples, but only mercuryshowedclose correlationsamongconcentrations in different matrices. Although the environmental chemicals examined pass through the placenta and are excreted into milk, partitions between maternal and fetal samples are not uniform. © 2011 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es1019614PFCsperfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1763-23-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishSerum vaccine antibody concentrations in adolescents exposed to perfluorinated compoundsGrandjean, P., Heilmann, C., Weihe, P., Nielsen, F., Mogensen, U. B., & Budtz-Jørgensen, E. (2017). Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in adolescents exposed to perfluorinated compounds. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(7)ToxicityEnvironmental Health Perspectives2017BACKGROUND:
Postnatal exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) is associated with lower serum concentrations of specific antibodies against certain childhood vaccines at 7 y.
OBJECTIVES:
We prospectively followed a Faroese birth cohort to determine these associations at 13 y.
METHODS:
In 516 subjects (79% of eligible cohort members) who were 13 years old, serum concentrations of PFASs and of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus were measured and were compared with data from the previous examination at 7 y. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models were applied to determine the association between postnatal PFAS exposures and antibody concentrations.
RESULTS:
Serum concentrations of PFASs and antibodies generally declined from 7 y to 13 y. However, 68 subjects had visited the emergency room and had likely received a vaccination booster, and a total of 202 children showed higher vaccine antibody concentrations at 13 y than at 7 y. Therefore, separate analyses were conducted after exclusion of these two subgroups. Diphtheria antibody concentrations decreased at elevated PFAS concentrations at 13 y and 7 y; the associations were statistically significant for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) at 7 y and for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) at 13 y, both suggesting a decrease by ∼25% for each doubling of exposure. Structural equation models showed that a doubling in PFAS exposure at 7 y was associated with losses in diphtheria antibody concentrations at 13 y of 10–30% for the five PFASs. Few associations were observed for anti-tetanus concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS:
These results are in accord with previous findings of PFAS immunotoxicity at current exposure levels. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP275
https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP275/PFCsperfluorohexanesulfonic acid, 355-46-4; perfluorononanoic acid, 375-95-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1; fluorocarbon, 11072-16-5;
EnglishPerfluorinated compounds – Exposure assessment for the general population in western countriesFromme, H., Tittlemier, S. A., Völkel, W., Wilhelm, M., & Twardella, D. (2009). Perfluorinated compounds - exposure assessment for the general population in western countries. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 212(3), 239-270. doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.04.007ToxicityInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health2009Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can currently be detected in many environmental media and biota, as well as in humans. Because of their persistence and their potential to accumulate they are of toxicological concern. The present review presents the current knowledge of PFC monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure. In this context, PFC concentrations in indoor and ambient air, house dust, drinking water and food are outlined. Furthermore, we summarize human biomonitoring data of PFC levels in blood, breast milk, and human tissues. An estimate of the overall exposure of the general adult population is provided and compared with tolerable intake values.

Using a simplified model, the average (and upper) level of daily exposure including all potential routes amounts to 1.6 ng/kgbody weight (8.8 ng/kgbody weight) for PFOS and 2.9 ng/kgbody weight (12.6 ng/kgbody weight) for PFOA in adults in the general population. The majority of exposure can be attributed to the oral route, mainly to diet. Overall, the contribution of PFOS and PFOA precursors to total exposure seems to be limited.

Besides this background exposure of the general population, a specific additional exposure may occur which causes an increased PFC body burden. This has been observed in populations living near PFC production facilities or in areas with environmental contamination of PFCs. The consumption of highly contaminated fish products may also cause an increase in PFC body burdens.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463908000308?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishIn vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)Corsini, E., Sangiovanni, E., Avogadro, A., Galbiati, V., Viviani, B., Marinovich, M., . . . Germolec, D. R. (2012). In vitro characterization of the immunotoxic potential of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 258(2), 248-255. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2011.11.004ToxicityToxicology and Applied Pharmacology2012We have previously shown that PFOA and PFOS directly suppress cytokine secretion in immune cells, with different mechanisms of action. In particular, we have demonstrated a role for PPAR-α in PFOA-induced immunotoxicity, and that PFOS has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced I-κB degradation.

These studies investigate the immunomodulatory effects of four other PFCs, namely PFBS, PFOSA, PFDA, and fluorotelomer using in vitro assays. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was evaluated in lipolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human peripheral blood leukocytes (hPBL) and in the human promyelocytic cell line THP-1, while the release of IL-10 and IFN-γ was evaluated in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated hPBL. All PFCs suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α production in hPBL and THP-1 cells, while IL-6 production was suppressed by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. PFBS, PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer inhibited PHA-induced IL-10 release, while IFN-γ secretion was affected by PFOSA, PFOS, PFDA and fluorotelomer. Leukocytes obtained from female donors appear to be more sensitive to the in vitro immunotoxic effects of PFCs when their responses are compared to the results obtained using leukocytes from male donors.

Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that inhibition of TNF-α release in THP-1 cells occurred at the transcriptional level. All PFCs, including PFOA and PFOS, decreased LPS-induced NF-κB activation. With the exception of PFOA, none of the PFCs tested was able to activate PPARα driven transcription in transiently transfected THP-1 cells, excluding a role for PPARα in the immunomodulation observed. PFBS and PFDA prevented LPS-induced I-κB degradation.

Overall, these studies suggest that PFCs affect NF-κB activation, which directly suppresses cytokine secretion by immune cells. Our results indicate that PFOA is the least active of the PFCs examined followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer.

Research Highlights
► PFCs showed direct immunomodulatory properties and inhibition of NF-κB driven transcription. ► PFOA is the least active PFCs followed by PFBS, PFDA, PFOS, PFOSA and fluorotelomer. ► Only PFOA activates PPARalpha.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X11004339?via%3Dihub#bb0065PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishImmunotoxicity of Perfluorinated Compounds: Recent DevelopmentsDewitt, J. C., Peden-Adams, M. M., Keller, J. M., & Germolec, D. R. (2012). Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: Recent developments. Toxicologic Pathology, 40(2), 300-311. doi:10.1177/0192623311428473ToxicityToxicologic Pathology2012Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are environmentally widespread, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental models and wildlife, including immunomodulation. The two most commonly detected compounds, which also generally occur in the highest concentrations in environmentally exposed organisms, are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA and PFOS have been reported to alter inflammatory responses, production of cytokines, and adaptive and innate immune responses in rodent models, avian models, reptilian models, and mammalian and nonmammalian wildlife. Mounting evidence suggests that immune effects in laboratory animal models occur at serum concentrations below, within the reported range, or just above those reported for highly exposed humans and wildlife. Thus, the risk of immune effects for humans and wildlife exposed to PFCs cannot be discounted, especially when bioaccumulation and exposure to multiple PFCs are considered. This review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA, PFOS, and other PFCs in rodent models, alternative laboratory models, and wildlife. © 2012, Society of Toxicologic Pathology. All rights reserved.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0192623311428473PFCsperfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishImpact of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid on human peripheral leukocytesBrieger, A., Bienefeld, N., Hasan, R., Goerlich, R., & Haase, H. (2011). Impact of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid on human peripheral leukocytes. Toxicology in Vitro, 25(4), 960-968. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2011.03.005ToxicityToxicology in Vitro2011Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment, wildlife, and humans. So far, the immunotoxicity of PFCs has only been investigated in rodents, but not in humans. In this study, we explore the impact of PFOS and PFOA on selected functions of human leukocytes in vitro. PFOS induced a significant decrease of natural killer-cell activity and reduced the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Furthermore, the plasma PFOS concentrations (2.09-8.98. ng/ml) found in our study subjects correlated positively with the LPS-stimulated IL-6 release. PFOA augmented significantly calcitriol-induced monocytic differentiation of the HL-60 cell line. Additionally, there was a significant linear relationship between LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 release, and the plasma PFOA (1.20-6.92. ng/ml) concentrations of the study subjects. In conclusion, the investigated PFCs affect human immune cells mainly with regard to natural killer-cell cytotoxicity and the pro-inflammatory cytokine release by stimulated macrophages. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233311000622?via%3DihubPFCsperfluorooctane sulfonic acid, 1763-23-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishA critical analysis of published data to discern the role of soil and sediment properties in determining sorption of per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)Li, Y., Oliver, D. P., & Kookana, R. S. (2018). A critical analysis of published data to discern the role of soil and sediment properties in determining sorption of per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Science of the Total Environment, 628-629, 110-120. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.167ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2018Widespread usage of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has caused major environmental contamination globally. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of PFASs affect the sorption behaviour and suggest organic carbon may not be the only factor affecting sorption. We reviewed the quality of all data published in peer-reviewed literature on sorption of PFASs to critically evaluate the role organic carbon (OC) and other properties have in sorption of PFASs in soils or sediments. The largest data sets available were for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, n = 147) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, n = 178), and these analyses showed very weak correlations between sorption coefficient (Kd) and OC alone (R2 = 0.05–0.07). When only laboratory-derived Kd values of PFASs and OC were analysed, the R2 values increased for PFOA (R2 = 0.24, n = 42), PFOS (R2 = 0.38, n = 69), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, R2 = 0.77 n = 12), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, R2 = 0.78, n = 13). However, the relationships were heavily skewed by one or two high OC values. Similarly there was no significant relationship between Kd values and pH for PFOS (R2 = 0.06) and PFOA (R2 = 0.07), across a range of environmental pH values. Our analyses showed sorption behaviour of a range of PFASs could not be explained by a single soil or sediment property. Multiple regression models better explained the sorption behaviour of a number of PFASs. Regressions of OC and pH together explained a significant proportion of the variation in Kd values for 9 out of 14 PFASs and 8 of these regressions had ≥10 data points. This review highlighted that at least OC, pH and clay content are properties having significant effect on sorption. There is a clear need for more data and studies with thorough characterisation of soils or sediments to better understand their role in PFASs sorption. Current assessments based on OC alone are likely to be erroneous. © 2018https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718302043PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishSystemic perfluorocarbons suppress the acute lung inflammation after gastric acid aspiration in ratsNader, N. D., Knight, P. R., Davidson, B. A., Safaee, S. S., & Steinhorn, D. M. (2000). Systemic perfluorocarbons suppress the acute lung inflammation after gastric acid aspiration in rats. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(2), 356-361. ToxicityAnesthesia and Analgesia2000Perflurocarbons (PFCs) are used during liquid ventilation and as hemoglobin substitutes. PFCs reduce free radical generation and damage to the lung during liquid ventilation. Thus, we examined the effects of parenteral administration of PFCs on lung injury after acid aspiration. Rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of either FC-77 or IV injection of Fluosol. Controls received intraperitoneal or IV normal saline (NS) before or at the time of injury and then were injured by instillation of NS + HCl (pH = 1.25) into their lungs via a tracheotomy. The animals were exposed to air or 98% oxygen, breathing spontaneously. The rats were injected with 0.05 μCi of 125I-albumin (bovine serum albumin) before injury. The extent of lung injury was assessed 5 h postinjury by compliance and lung albumin permeability index measurement. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histologic examination were used to assess neutrophilic infiltration. Both FC-77 and Fluosol decreased the permeability index compared with controls (1.05 ± 0.08; 1.08 ± 0.12, respectively, versus 1.34 ± 0.21) and improved lung compliance after intratracheal instillation of 1.2 mL/kg of HCl/NS, pH = 1.25 + hyperoxia injury (P < 0.05). Lung MPO activity decreased in the FC-77 group and was associated with a concomitant decrease in neutrophil infiltration. MPO activity of the spleen increased after FC-77 treatment. The administration of FC-77 decreased the severity of lung permeability changes associated with acid in the presence or absence of hyperoxia exposure. These data suggest that attenuation of neutrophilic infiltration by PFCs decreases lung injury. Implications: Intraperitoneally administered perfluorocarbons in rats attenuate the neutrophilic infiltration in the lung after acid aspiration, thereby decreasing the alveolar protein leakage and improving pulmonary compliance.https://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/pages/default.aspxPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishMechanism of Perfluoroalkyl Halide Toxicity: Catalysis of Perfluoroalkylation by Reduced Forms of Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)Beda, N. V., & Nedospasov, A. A. (2003). Mechanism of perfluoroalkyl halide toxicity: Catalysis of perfluoroalkylation by reduced forms of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Biochemistry (Moscow), 68(12), 1369-1375. doi:10.1023/B:BIRY.0000011659.02192.04ToxicityBiochemistry (Moscow)2003Perfluoroalkyl halides (PFHs) are synthetic products widely used in various fields. Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFB) is used in medicine as a component of blood substitutes and for artificial lung ventilation. In both cases, it is considered a completely inert compound acting as a solvent for oxygen. However, there are many reports of PFH-induced intoxication, including lethal cases. Mechanisms underlying toxic effects of this compound remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the reduced form of cobalamin (vitamin B 12) typical for B12-dependent enzymes can catalyze the reactions of perfluoroalkylation, aromatic substitution, or addition by double bonds. Synthesis of perfluoro derivatives from PFHs during catalysis by cob(I)alamin-like super nucleophiles is a new possible mechanism responsible for in vivo formation of highly toxic compounds from "chemically inert" substances widely used in medicine. Catalytic perfluoroalkylation might possibly contribute to nitric oxide depletion and modulation of activity of guanylate cyclase, cytochromes, NO-synthases, and other heme-containing proteins.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FB%3ABIRY.0000011659.02192.04PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishPerfluorinated alkyl substances in Spanish adults: Geographical distribution and determinants of exposureBartolomé, M., Gallego-Picó, A., Cutanda, F., Huetos, O., Esteban, M., Pérez-Gómez, B., & Castaño, A. (2017). Perfluorinated alkyl substances in spanish adults: Geographical distribution and determinants of exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 603-604, 352-360. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.031ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2017Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widely found in humans and the environment. Their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity make them a source of increasing public health concern. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations and geographical distribution of six PFAS in the serum of 755 Spanish adults aged 18–65.

The geometric mean concentrations (and P95 values) for PFOS (perfluoroctane sulfonate), PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid) were 7.67 (19.3), 1.99 (5.48), 0.91 (2.84), 0.96 (2.44) and 0.42 (0.99) μg/L, respectively. N-Methylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-MeFOSAA) was detected in only 3.3% of samples.

Residents in northeast (Catalonia) and northwest of Spain (Galicia) were found to have the highest serum values, whereas residents in the Canary Islands had the lowest values for almost all PFAS. Men presented higher levels than women, and we confirm that lactation (breastfeeding) contributes to a reduced body burden for all PFAS in women.

Our data provide new information on exposure to PFAS in a national cross section sample of Spanish adults, thus providing a proxy for reference values for the Spanish population and forming the base for following temporal trends in the future.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717314353?via%3DihubPFCsperfluorodecanoic acid, 335-76-2; perfluorohexanesulfonic acid, 355-46-4; perfluorononanoic acid, 375-95-1; perfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1
EnglishVariation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine Swedish lakesÅkerblom, S., Negm, N., Wu, P., Bishop, K., & Ahrens, L. (2017). Variation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in european perch (perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine swedish lakes. Science of the Total Environment, 599-600, 1685-1692. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.032ToxicityScience of the Total Environment2017This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ15N and δ13C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n = 80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PFAS levels in the lakes were affected by atmospheric deposition in relatively pristine areas with no direct point source of PFAS in the catchment. PFTeDA, PFUnDA, PFTriDA, PFDoDA, PFDA, PFOS and 6:2 FTSA were detected with a frequency between 68% and 99% and were included in the statistical evaluation. ΣPFAS differed between lakes (ANOVA: F = 50.6, p < 0.0001): fish from lakes in southern Sweden (lake Gårdsjön, 58°03′N, 12°01′E) showed elevated levels of PFAS, with a maximum ΣPFAS of 3.4 ng g− 1 wet weight (ww) (mean ± SD: 0.99 ± 0.63 ng g− 1 ww), while the lowest levels were found in lake Björntjärn (0.31 ± 0.08 ng g− 1 ww) in northern Sweden (63°54′N, 18°51′E). PFOS was most abundant in perch from south-western Sweden, while other long-chain perfluorocarbons (> 10 carbon atoms) were relatively more abundant in lakes in northern Sweden. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that concentrations of PFAS in perch did not show any relation to fish size or age and were negatively correlated with trophic position of the fish (δ15N). It was also found that ΣPFAS were negatively correlated with both latitude and altitude. The PFAS data in this study represent national background concentrations in freshwater fish across Swedish lakes. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717311312?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishPerfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textilesSupreeyasunthorn, P., Boontanon, S. K., & Boontanon, N. (2016). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 51(6), 472-477. doi:10.1080/10934529.2015.1128713ToxicityJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering2016The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 g m-2 (0.02 to 0.61 g m-2) and 2.74 g m-2 (0.31 to 14.14 g m-2), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (<1 g m-2), the average concentration of PFOA was 2.74 g m-2, and 68.75% of textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 g m-2. Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10934529.2015.1128713PFCsperfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1; water, 7732-18-5; fluorocarbon, 11072-16-5
EnglishNo association between exposure to perfluorinated compounds and congenital cryptorchidism: A nested case-control study Among 215 Boys from Denmark and FinlandJensen, D. V., Christensen, J., Virtanen, H. E., Skakkebæk, N. E., Main, K. M., Toppari, J., . . . Jensen, T. K. (2014). No association between exposure to perfluorinated compounds and congenital cryptorchidism: A nested case-control study among 215 boys from denmark and finland. Reproduction, 147(4), 411-417. doi:10.1530/REP-13-0444ToxicityArchives of Toxicology2012Geographical differences in the occurrence of diseases in male reproductive organs, including malformation in reproductive tract, between Denmark and Finland have been reported. The reason for these differences is unknown, but differences in exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities have been suggested. Among these chemicals are perfluoro-alkylated substances (PFASs), a group of water- and grease-repellent chemicals used in outdoor clothes, cookware, food packaging, and textiles. In this study, we, therefore, investigated differences in PFAS exposure levels between Denmark and Finland and the association between cord blood PFAS levels and congenital cryptorchidism. Boys from a joint ongoing prospective birth cohort study were included. We analyzed PFAS levels in cord blood serum samples collected from 29 Danish boys with congenital cryptorchidism, 30 healthy Danish matched controls recruited from 1997 to 2001, 30 Finnish cases, and 78 Finnish healthy matched controls recruited from 1997 to 1999. Additionally, 48 Finnish cases recruited from 2000 to 2002 were included. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in all the 215 Danish and Finnish cord blood samples with significantly higher levels being observed in the Danish samples (medians: PFOA, 2.6 ng/ml and PFOS, 9.1 ng/ml) than in the Finnish samples (medians: PFOA, 2.1 ng/ml and PFOS, 5.2 ng/ml). We found no associations between cord blood PFOA and PFOS levels and congenital cryptorchidism after adjustment for confounders. Our data indicate that women in Denmark and Finland are generally exposed to PFOA and PFOS but there are differences in exposure levels between countries. We found no statistically significant association between cord blood PFOA and PFOS levels and congenital cryptorchidism; however, our study was small and larger studies are warranted.http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/411PFCsperfluorooctanoic acid, 335-67-1; fluorocarbon, 11072-16-5;
EnglishNeurotoxic effects of perfluoroalkylated compounds: Mechanisms of action and environmental relevanceMariussen, E. (2012). Neurotoxic effects of perfluoroalkylated compounds: Mechanisms of action and environmental relevance. Archives of Toxicology, 86(9), 1349-1367. doi:10.1007/s00204-012-0822-6ToxicityArchives of Toxicology2012Perfluoroalkylated compounds (PFCs) are used in fire-fighting foams, treatment of clothes, carpets and leather products, and as lubricants, pesticides, in paints and medicine. Recent developments in chemical analysis have revealed that fluorinated compounds have become ubiquitously spread and are regarded as a potential threats to the environment. Due to the carbon-fluorine bond, which has a very high bond strength, these chemicals are extremely persistent towards degradation and some PFCs have a potential for bioaccumulation in organisms. Of particular concern has been the developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA, which has been manifested in rodent studies as high mortality of prenatally exposed newborn rats and mice within 24 h after delivery. The nervous system appears to be one of the most sensitive targets of environmental contaminants. The serious developmental effects of PFCs have lead to the upcoming of studies that have investigatedneurotoxic effects of these substances. In this review the major findings of the neurotoxicity of the main PFCs and their suggested mechanisms of action are presented. The neurotoxic effects are discussed in light of other toxic effects of PFCs to indicate the significance of PFCs as neurotoxicants. The main findings are that PFCs may induce neurobehavioral effects, particularly in developmentally exposed animals. The effects are, however, subtle and inconclusive and are often induced at concentrations where other toxic effects also are expected. Mechanistic studies have shown that PFCs may affect the thyroid system, influence the calcium homeostasis, protein kinase C, synaptic plasticity and cellular differentiation. Compared to other environmental toxicants the human blood levels of PFCs are high and of particular concern is that susceptible groups may be exposed to a cocktail of substances that in combination reach harmful concentrations. © Springer-Verlag 2012.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00204-012-0822-6PFCsperfluorodecanoic acid, 335-76-2; perfluorononanoic acid, 375-95-1
EnglishPine needles for the screening of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) along ski tracksChropeňová, M., Karásková, P., Kallenborn, R., Gregušková, E. K., & Čupr, P. (2016). Pine needles for the screening of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) along ski tracks. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(17), 9487-9496. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02264ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2016Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended. © 2016 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.6b02264PFCs375-22-4; 2706-90-3; 307-24-4; 375-85-9; 335-67-1; 335-76-2; 307-55-1; 376-06-7; 375-73-5; 375-95-1; 319-84-6; 2058-94-8; 72629-94-8;
EnglishEmissions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in a textile manufacturing plant in china and their relevance for workers' exposure. Heydebreck, F., Tang, J., Xie, Z., & Ebinghaus, R. (2016). Emissions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in a textile manufacturing plant in china and their relevance for workers' exposure. Environmental Science and Technology, 50(19), 10386-10396. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b03213ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Technology2016The manufacturing of high-performance fabrics requires numerous chemical treatment steps that involve the use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to protect apparel against water, stain, and oil penetration. However, air and wastewater emissions of PFASs generated during this manufacturing are a potential threat to both factory workers and the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of PFASs in wastewater, air, airborne particles, and settled dust in a textile manufacturing plant in China. PFOA and PFDA or their precursor compounds 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH were the dominant compounds in all environmental media tested, revealing that long-chain PFASs were preferably used for the manufacturing of functional garments. Besides, PFASs were detected along the textile manufacturing chain, indicating that they were used as durable water repellents and as surfactants in, for example, coating agents. The workers' exposure to FTOHs via air inhalation was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than the background exposure of the general western population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing information regarding the emission of PFASs during the manufacturing of textiles via various environmental media. © 2016 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.6b03213PFCs 335-67-1; 335-76-2; 647-42-7; 2043-47-2; 678-39-7; 865-86-1
EnglishDistribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in water from industrialized bays, rivers and agricultural areas in KoreaLam, N. H., Min, B. -., Cho, C. -., Park, K. -., Ryu, J. -., Kim, P. -., . . . Cho, H. -. (2016). Distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in water from industrialized bays, rivers and agricultural areas in korea. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 8(1), 43-55. doi:10.1007/s13530-016-0260-6ToxicityToxicology and Environmental Health Sciences2016Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in water environment globally. However, the difference on occurrence profiles between PFASs in water from coastal areas and inland rivers or/and agricultural areas is still limited. In this study, the presence of thirteen PFASs in sixty-five surface water samples collected from coastal areas of three southeastern industrialized bays, four major rivers, and six rice field areas in Korea were analyzed. Total PFAS concentrations (ng/L) range from 0.22-73.9 (mean=22.1) for the major rivers, 0.54-3.19 (mean=1.77) for the rice field areas, and https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13530-016-0260-6PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishPerfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textilesSupreeyasunthorn, P., Boontanon, S. K., & Boontanon, N. (2016). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 51(6), 472-477. doi:10.1080/10934529.2015.1128713ToxicityJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering2016The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m−2 (0.02 to 0.61 µg m−2) and 2.74 µg m−2 (0.31 to 14.14 µg m−2), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (<1 µg m−2), the average concentration of PFOA was 2.74 µg m−2, and 68.75% of textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m−2. Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10934529.2015.1128713PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishPerfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer productsKotthoff, M., Müller, J., Jürling, H., Schlummer, M., & Fiedler, D. (2015). Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(19), 14546-14559. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4202-7ToxicityEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2015Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6–C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4–C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m2 PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m2 PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m2). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products. © 2015, The Author(s).https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-015-4202-7PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishPerfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): Global occurrence, exposure and health effects (Book Chapter)Hampton, E. (2016). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): Global occurrence, exposure and health effects. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): Global occurrence, exposure and health effects (pp. 1-150)ToxicityPerfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Global Occurrence, Exposure and Health Effects2016Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a group of organofluorine, aliphatic hydrocarbons, of which all or almost all hydrogen atoms are replaced with fluorine. They have a wide range of industrial and consumer applications such as stain, paints, hydraulic fluids, firefighting foams, production of fluoropolimers, cosmetics, insecticide formulations, textile treatments, surface coatings for carpets and furniture, cookware and water- and oil- resistant coatings for food contact materials. PFCs are extremely resistant towards thermal, chemical and biological degradation processes. There is now no evidence for their degradability and they decompose only at very high temperatures using a specially prepared furnaces. The authors of this book summarize the recent information on the occurrence, exposure and health effects caused by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). (Imprint: Nova) © 2016 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.n.a.PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishOccurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basinsValsecchi, S., Rusconi, M., Mazzoni, M., Viviano, G., Pagnotta, R., Zaghi, C., . . . Polesello, S. (2015). Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in italian river basins. Chemosphere, 129, 126-134. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.07.044ToxicityChemosphere2015This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged from < LOD to 8 μg L−1, the highest concentrations being measured in the rivers impacted by industrial discharges. Among the rivers directly flowing into the sea, Brenta, Po and Arno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits.

The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5 t y−1 with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively.

In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3 t y−1) is still present.

Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12 t y−1) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653514009059?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishAbatement of perfluorocarbons with combined plasma catalysis in atmospheric-pressure environmentChang, M. B., & Lee, H. M. (2004). Abatement of perfluorocarbons with combined plasma catalysis in atmospheric-pressure environment. Catalysis Today, 89(1-2), 109-115. doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2003.11.016Antipollution systemsCatalysis Today2004Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are widely used in semiconductor industry. However, they intensely absorb infrared radiation and consequently aggravate the greenhouse effect. A combined plasma catalysis (CPC) technology is developed to destroy PFCs. For practical purpose the CPC is designed to function at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In addition, this study compares three kinds of operations, i.e. catalysis, plasmas and CPC. Results indicate that CPC achieves the highest PFC destruction efficiency. Complete destructions are achieved for SF6 and NF3. Removal efficiencies for CF4 and C2F6 are 66 and 83%, respectively. The products formed in CPC process for CF4 and C2F6 are mainly CO2 and a little CO. In contrast, the products formed in plasma process include CO2, CO, COF2, and CF4. In brief, this study demonstrates that CPC is of a higher efficiency and less-toxic products for PFC removal compared with plasma technology at the given conditions.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920586103006163?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishMitigation of environmental impact caused by dwor textile finishing chemicals studying their nontoxic alternativesMartí, M., & Manich, A. M. (2016). Mitigation of environmental impact caused by dwor textile finishing chemicals studying their nontoxic alternatives. Vlakna a Textil, 23(3), 126-132. Antipollution systemsVlakna a Textil2016DWOR (Durable Water and Oil Repellents) are textile finishing products made of long chain fluorocarbon polymers to give repellency to water, oil and dirt to fabrics. These chemicals are persistent and bioaccumulative. Many perfluorochemicals have already been listed in different European regulations to put emphasis on their risk for humans and the environment. These products have been used in the textile industry since many years ago and tentative to replace them has been done since 2000. Alternative products are currently being proposed by different chemical companies for textile applications, however, the toxicity and environmental impact of these new alternatives is still unknown. The substitution of toxic and persistent perfluorochemicals is of high importance as they occupy a high place in the market and almost all alternatives are perfluorocarbons based products (fluorocarbons polymers with shorter chain length). The main objective of the project is to mitigate the environmental, health and safety impacts of current and future Durable Water and Oil Repellents (DWOR) alternatives by analyzing their environmental impact and technical performances, in order to assess manufacturers on the best available technologies for repellent finishing. Moreover, the risks of the DWOR alternatives will be evaluated for human and environmental health in the textile finishing industry. In this perspective, policy recommendations will be set in order to promote the widespread implementation of the less toxic and most effective DWOR alternatives to fulfill REACH Regulation. Key Words: Durable Water and Oil Repellents.n.a.PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishAssessment of removal efficiency of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in a semiconductor fabrication plant by gas chromatographyOu Yang, C. -., Kam, S. -., Liu, C. -., Tzou, J., & Wang, J. -. (2009). Assessment of removal efficiency of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) in a semiconductor fabrication plant by gas chromatography. Chemosphere, 76(9), 1273-1277. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.06.039Antipollution systemsChemosphere,2009This study investigated a gas chromatographic (GC) method to assess the destruction or removal efficiency (DRE) of local scrubbers on five perfluorocompounds (PFCs), i.e., SF6, NF3, CF4, C2F6, and C3F8, which are very potent greenhouse gases used in a semiconductor fabrication plant. Air samples taken at inlets and outlets of local scrubbers were analyzed by a self-constructed multi-column GC system equipped with thermal conductivity detection. Three packed columns were integrated into the heart-cut GC system to allow simultaneous analysis of the five target PFCs. The Porapak Q pre-column performs rough separation and cuts eluent groups to two analytical columns for optimal separation. The Molecular Sieve - 5A column separated NF3, CF4, and C3F8 and the second Porapak Q separated SF6 and C2F6. Linearity was greater than 0.995 (R2) for the five PFCs, and the reproducibility was about 4% (relative standard deviation) for NF3, and better than 0.5% for the other four PFCs. DRE for the combustion (CB) and electric-thermal types of local scrubbers was evaluated by taking into account the in-line dilution from air and fuel gases. Both flow and tracer methods were employed to deduce the dilution factors (DFs). For the tracer method, helium was employed as the tracer and injected upstream of the scrubbers and thus mixed with the exhaust gas. With this method, the DFs were determined to be in the range from 4.8 to 5.9 for the CB unit, significantly higher than the value of 3.3 based on the flow method. The DREs for the CB unit for C3F8 were greater than 90% and between 40% and 50% for CF4. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653509007486?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishAdvances in abatement of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with microwave plasmaZhu, X., Sun, B., Huo, C., & Xie, H. (2012). Advances in abatement of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with microwave plasma doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.518-523.2315 Antipollution systemsAdvanced Materials Research2012Perfluorocarbons have been widely used in the semiconductor industry. As highly potent global warming gases, they have extremely long atmospheric lifetime and intensive absorption ability of infrared radiation. Naturally, the abatement of PFCs becomes a critical environmental issue. In this paper, an effort is made to review the development of microwave plasma technology for the control of PFCs. Relevant studies indicate that microwave plasma has the advantage of high electron temperature and high electron density which is of great potential to PFCs abatement. Low pressure microwave plasma may interfere with the normal operation of semiconductor manufacturing processes. At atmospheric pressure, microwave plasmas exhibit high react performance with PFCs. The atmospheric pressure microwave plasma combined with catalyst can reduce the microwave power and increase the destruction and removal efficiency and energy efficiency. The combination technology has a good potential to be used as an integrated technology for abating PFCs from complicated gas streams of semiconductor manufacturing processes. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.https://www.scientific.net/AMR.518-523.2315PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishThermal mineralization behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) in nitrogen atmosphereWatanabe, N., Takata, M., Takemine, S., & Yamamoto, K. (2018). Thermal mineralization behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) in nitrogen atmosphere. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(8), 7200-7205. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-5353-2Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2018Waste disposal site is one of the important sinks of chemicals. A significant amount of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) have been brought into it. Because of their aqueous solubility, PFASs are released to landfill effluent waters, from which PFASs are efficiently collected by adsorption technique using granular activated carbon (GAC). The exhausted GAC is reactivated by heating processes. The mineralization of PFASs during the reactivation process was studied. Being thermally treated in N2 atmosphere, the recovery rate of mineralized fluorine and PFC homologues including short-chained perfluorocarboxylic acids was determined. If the reagent form of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS were treated at 700 °C, the recovery of mineralized fluorine was less than 30, 46, and 72 %, respectively. The rate increased to 51, 74, and 70 %, if PFASs were adsorbed onto GAC in advance; moreover, addition of excess sodium hydroxide (NaOH) improved the recovery to 74, 91, and 90 %. Residual PFAS homologue was less than 1 % of the original amount. Steamed condition did not affect destruction. The significant role of GAC was to suppress volatile release of PFASs from thermal ambient, whereas NaOH enhanced destruction and retained mineralized fluorine on the GAC surface. Comparing the recovery of mineralized fluorine, the degradability of PFOS was considered to be higher than PFOA and PFHxA. Whole mass balance missing 9~26 % of initial amount suggested formation of some volatile organofluoro compounds beyond analytical coverage. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-015-5353-2PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishCobalt nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-rich carbon nanotubes as efficient catalysts for organic pollutants degradation via sulfite activationWu, D., Ye, P., Wang, M., Wei, Y., Li, X., & Xu, A. (2018). Cobalt nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen-rich carbon nanotubes as efficient catalysts for organic pollutants degradation via sulfite activation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 352, 148-156. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.03.040Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2018The activation of sulfite by heterogeneous catalysts displays a great potential in the development of new sulfate radials based technologies for wastewater treatment. Herein, cobalt nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon nanotubes (Co@NC) were prepared by a simple pyrolysis method. Due to the synergistic effects of the cobalt nanoparticles and N-doped carbon nanotubes, the Co@NC catalyst intrinsically shows an outstanding efficiency, excellent reusability and high stability in the catalytic oxidation of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of sulfite and dioxygen. The structure and efficiency of the catalyst was significantly affected by the content of cobalt and pyrolysis temperature. Several quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance were carried out to investigate the catalytic mechanism. It is found that hydroxyl and sulfate radicals worked together to degrade MO in the system. The formation and decomposition of peroxymonosulfate may be an important route of these reactive radicals production. The effect of different anions, bicarbonate concentration, initial solution pH and dye types on the performance of the catalyst was also studied. This study can open a new approach for design and preparation of encapsulated cobalt in carbon materials as effective catalysts for pollutants degradation via sulfite activation.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389418301924?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishRemoving perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid from solid matrices, paper, fabrics, and sand by mineral acid suppression and supercritical carbon dioxide extractionChen, H. -., Liao, W., Wu, B. -., Nian, H., Chiu, K., & Yak, H. -. (2012). Removing perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid from solid matrices, paper, fabrics, and sand by mineral acid suppression and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Chemosphere, 89(2), 179-184. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.06.003Antipollution systemsChemosphere2012The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from solid matrices has received considerable attention because of the environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity of these compounds. This study presents a simple method using concentrated HNO3 as a suppression agent, and methanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2) extraction for removing PFOS and PFOA from solid matrices. The optimal conditions were 16M HNO3 and 20% (v/v) methanol containing Sc-CO2, under a pressure of 20.3MPa and a temperature of 50°C. Extraction time was set at 70min (40min for static and 30min for dynamic extraction). PFOA and PFOS were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extraction efficiencies (with double extractions) were close to 100% for PFOA and 80% for PFOS for both paper and fabric matrices. The extraction efficiencies for sand were approximately 77% for PFOA and 59% for PFOS. The results show that this method is accurate, and effective, and that it provides a promising and convenient approach to remediate the environment of hazardous PFOA and PFOS contamination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22748389PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishWastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)-derived national discharge loads of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs)Kim, S. -., Im, J. -., Kang, Y. -., Jung, S. -., Kho, Y. L., & Zoh, K. -. (2012). Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)-derived national discharge loads of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 201-202, 82-91. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.11.036Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2012The discharge of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) was investigated for 15 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comprising 25% of total domestic wastewater and 23% of total industrial wastewater produced in Korea. PFCs concentrations in influent, effluent, and sludge were greater in industrial wastewater than in the majority of domestic wastewater. Individual PFCs were found to have differing industrial sources, with perfluorocarboxylates used in fabric/textiles, paper-mill, and dyeing industries, and perfluoroalkylsulfonates occurring in oil/chemical and metal-plating/processing industries. Total WWTP-derived national discharge loads were calculated based on the average concentrations in effluents and the total volume of wastewaters produced in Korea. The average WWTP-derived national discharge loads of individual PFCs were 0.04-0.61ton/year, with 63% of perfluorooctanoate being from domestic wastewater, and 75% of perfluorooctanesulfonate being from industrial wastewater. These estimates accounted for the majority of national emissions, based on measurements in major river mouths, indicating the major contribution of WWTPs to PFC occurrence in Korean aquatic environments. Both the per capita emission factor (μg/capita/day) for domestic discharge, and area-normalized national discharge loads (g/capita/km 2/day) for all wastewaters were several factors lower in Korea than in Japan or Europe, which is consistent with the lower levels of human exposure to PFCs in Korea. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389411014026?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishFinishing of textiles with fluorocarbons.Sayed, U., & Dabhi, P. (2017). Finishing of textiles with fluorocarbons. Waterproof and water repellent textiles and clothing (pp. 139-152) doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-101212-3.00006-XSubstitutive SubstancesWaterproof and water repellent textiles and clothing (Book)2014Fluorochemicals have its applications in many fields, as in firefighting, electroplating and electronics industries. A number of novel approaches using fluorochemicals in textile processing are a portent area for better marketing of textile goods. Value added finishing of textiles is a new development in textiles processing and these fluorochemical finishes impart water repellency, oil repellency, soil repellency giving value addition to the textile substrate. Application of the fluorochemical finish has been found to be versatile in nature and can also be used to make fluoropolymer coatings and products that resist heat, oil, stains, grease, etc. In the recent times, C8 carbon atoms which was found to be carcinogenic in nature has been replaced by C6 and C4. C6 chemistry produces a byproduct called PFHA (perfluorohexanoic acid), which is supposed to be 40 times less bio accumulative than PFOA and found to be environment friendly.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978008101212300006XPFCs335-67-1; 375-85-9; 375-92-8
EnglishFluorinated repellentsShimada, T. (2014). Fluorinated repellents. Iodine chemistry and applications (pp. 513-522) doi:10.1002/9781118909911.ch29Substitutive SubstancesIodine chemistry and applications (Book)2014Fluorochemicals are widely used in modern life, especially those possessing perfluoroalkyl groups and low surface tension. They are use as oil and water repellents for clothes, shoes, and umbrellas; oil- and grease-resistant agents for fast-food packaging and paper trays; and antifouling agents for carpeting. In this chapter, these compounds are collectively called fluorinated repellents. Iodine and chemicals containing iodine are used as the main raw materials for the synthesis of fluorinated repellents. Oil and water repellency and durability are the major requirements for application of these repellents in the clothing industry. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used in emulsion polymerization of fluoropolymers because of its excellent performance as an emulsifier. To overcome PFOA issues, a variety of alternative technologies and products have been developed. The chapter reviews the correlation between the repellent characteristics of fluoropolymer coatings and the chemical and higher-order structures of perfluoroalkyl groups. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118909911.ch29PFCs335-67-1; 1763-23-1; 27619-97-2; 754-91-6
EnglishWaterproof and water repellent textiles and clothingWilliams, J. (2017). Waterproof and water repellent textiles and clothing. Waterproof and water repellent textiles and clothing (pp. 1-576)Substitutive SubstancesWaterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing (Book)2017Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing provides systematic coverage of the key types of finishes and high performance materials, from conventional wax and silicone, through controversial, but widely used fluoropolymers and advanced techniques, such as atmospheric plasma deposition and sol-gel technology. The book is an essential resource for all those engaged in garment development, production and finishing, and for academics engaged in research into apparel technology and textile science. Rapid innovation in this field is driving new performance demands in many areas, including the sporting and military sectors. However, another innovation driver is the regulatory framework in the USA, Europe and globally, addressing both health concerns (e.g. with PFOS / PFOA) and environmental impacts (e.g. C8 fluorocarbon finishes). Both of these aspects are fully covered, along with the replacement materials / technologies currently available and under development. In addition, oleophobic and multifunctional coatings are discussed, as are aspects of performance, testing and applications in sportswear, protective clothing, and footwear. Introduces innovative materials and technologies, exploring their current and potential use across different sectors. Provides expert guidance on the health and environmental aspects of key waterproof materials and coatings and their associated regulations. Demystifies testing processes and design principles. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=88210PFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishSubstitution of PFAS chemistry in outdoor apparel and the impact on repellency performanceHill, P. J., Taylor, M., Goswami, P., & Blackburn, R. S. (2017). Substitution of PFAS chemistry in outdoor apparel and the impact on repellency performance. Chemosphere, 181, 500-507. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.04.122Substitutive SubstancesChemosphere2017Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions. Herein, complexities between required functionality, legislation and sustainability within outdoor apparel are discussed, and fundamental technical performance of commercially available long-chain (C8) PFASs, shorter-chain (C6) PFASs, and non-fluorinated repellent chemistries finishes are evaluated comparatively. Non-fluorinated finishes provided no oil repellency, and were clearly inferior in this property to PFAS-finished fabrics that demonstrated good oil-resistance. However, water repellency ratings were similar across the range of all finished fabrics tested, all demonstrating a high level of resistance to wetting, and several non-fluorinated repellent fabrics provide similar water repellency to long-chain (C8) PFAS or shorter-chain (C6) PFAS finished fabrics. The primary repellency function required in outdoor apparel is water repellency, and we would propose that the use of PFAS chemistry for such garments is over-engineering, providing oil repellency that is in excess of user requirements. Accordingly, significant environmental and toxicological benefits could be achieved by switching outdoor apparel to non-fluorinated finishes without a significant reduction in garment water-repellency performance. These conclusions are being supported by further research into the effect of laundering, abrasion and ageing of these fabrics. © 2017 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653517306598?via%3DihubPFCs115-25-3 1546-95-8 1691-99-2 172155-07-6 17527-29-6 1763-23-1 17741-60-5 2043-47-2 2058-94-8 21049-39-8 24448-09-7 2706-90-3 27619-97-2 27854-31-5 27905-45-9 2806-15-7 29420-49-3 307-24-4 307-35-7 307-55-1 31506-32-8 355-42-0 335-67-1 335-76-2 335-77-3 34598-33-9 355-46-4 375-22-4 375-73-5 375-85-9 375-92-8 375-95-1 376-06-7 39108-34-4 4149-60-4 4151-50-2 59933-66-3 647-42-7 678-26-2 678-39-7 68555-66-8 72629-94-8 754-91-6 82382-12-15 865-86-1 882489-14-7
EnglishConcentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in commercial pigmentsAnezaki, K., & Nakano, T. (2014). Concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in commercial pigments. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(2), 998-1009. doi:10.1007/s11356-013-1977-2Analytical methodsEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research2014The concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) were assessed in commercially available organic pigments. Among the azo-type pigments tested, PCB-11, which is synthesized from 3,3′-dichlorobendizine, and PCB-52, which is synthesized from 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobendizine, were the major congeners detected. It is speculated that these were byproducts of chlorobendizine, which has a very similar structure. The total PCB concentrations in this type of pigment ranged from 0.0070 to 740 mg/kg. Among the phthalocyanine-type pigments, highly chlorinated PCBs, mainly composed of PCB-209, PeCBz, and HxCBz were detected. Their concentration levels ranged from 0.011 to 2.5 mg/kg, 0.0035 to 8.4 mg/kg, and 0.027 to 75 mg/kg, respectively. It is suggested that PeCBz and HxCBz were formed as byproducts and converted into PCBs at the time of synthesizing the phthalocyanine green. For the polycyclic-type pigments that were assessed, a distinctive PCB congener profile was detected that suggested an impact of their raw materials and the organic solvent used in the pigment synthesis. PCB pollution from PCB-11, PCB-52, and PCB-209 pigments is of particular concern; therefore, the monthly variations in atmospheric concentrations of these pollutants were measured in an urban area (Sapporo city) and an industrial area (Muroran city). The study detected a certain level of PCB-11, which is not included in PCB technical mixtures, and revealed continuing PCB pollution originating from pigments in the ambient air. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11356-013-1977-2Halogenated Solvents108-90-7; 118-74-1, 55600-34-5; 608-93-5
EnglishDevelopment of a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene residues in honey using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MSTsimeli, K., Triantis, T. M., Dimotikali, D., & Hiskia, A. (2008). Development of a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene residues in honey using HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS. Analytica Chimica Acta, 617(1-2), 64-71. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.03.049Analytical methodsAnalytica Chimica Acta2008A new method for the simultaneous determination of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), naphthalene and 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) residues in honey has been developed. Analysis is carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM), after extraction and preconcentration of target analytes by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), with a 100 μm film thickness polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. Several parameters affecting the extension of the adsorption process (i.e., addition of salt, extraction time, extraction temperature) were studied. The optimal conditions for the determination of these analytes were established. The proposed HS-SPME method showed good sensitivity, without carryover between the samples. Linearity was studied from 5 to 2500 μg kg-1 for p-DCB, 0.5 to 500 μg kg-1 for naphthalene and 5 to 500 μg kg-1 honey for 1,2-DBE with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9999. Precision was assessed and both intra and inter-day R.S.D.s (%) were below 6.3%. The detection limits were found to be 1, 0.1 and 2 μg kg-1 honey for p-DCB, naphthalene and 1,2-DBE, respectively. The percentage recoveries that were evaluated with the proposed HS-SPME method and the standard addition calibration technique gave values among 72.8 and 104.3% for measurements in samples spiked with one target analyte or mixtures of the three. This method has been applied for the analysis of unknown honey samples. The results showed an excellent applicability of the proposed method for the determination of the target compounds in honey samples. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003267008005989?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dibromoethane, 106-93-4; 1,4 dichlorobenzene, 106-46-7;
EnglishDevelopment of an HPLC-MS procedure for the quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine, the major urinary metabolite of 1-bromopropane in human urineCheever, K. L., Marlow, K. L., B'Hymer, C., Hanley, K. W., & Lynch, D. W. (2009). Development of an HPLC-MS procedure for the quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine, the major urinary metabolite of 1-bromopropane in human urine. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 877(8-9), 827-832. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.02.010Analytical methodsJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences2009An analytical procedure was developed for the detection and quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (n-propylmercapturic acid, AcPrCys), a metabolite and biomarker for exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP). 1-BP is used as an industrial solvent and exposure is a health concern for industrial workers due to its toxicity. It has been associated with neurological disorders in both animals and humans. Urine sample preparation for the determination of AcPrCys consisted of solid phase extraction (SPE). Urine samples on preconditioned SPE (C18) columns were washed with 40% methanol/60% water solution prior to elution with acetone. Quantification was by means of a liquid chromatograph (LC) equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS) using an Aqua 3 μm C18 300A column and [d7]-AcPrCys was used as internal standard. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used with the MS operated in the negative ion mode and selected ion monitoring (SIM) at m/z 204 for AcPrCys and m/z 211 for [d7]-AcPrCys. Demonstrated recovery of urine samples fortified at multiple levels (0.625–10 μg/ml) varied between 96 and 103% of theory with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 6.4% or less. The limit of detection (LOD) for the procedure was approximately 0.01 μg/ml AcPrCys in urine. These data will be discussed as well as other factors of the development of this test procedure.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570023209000828?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5
ChineseDetermination of urinary 1-bromopropane by headspace-gas chromatographyReferences

Zhou, C., Zhu, B., Yin, L., Li, X., Wu, J., & Rongming, M. (2015). Determination of urinary 1-bromopropane by headspace-gas chromatography. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Laodong Weisheng Zhiyebing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, 33(5), 392-393.
Analytical methodsZhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases2015n.a.n.a.Halogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5
EnglishDiffusive sampling and biological monitoring of 2-bromopropaneKawai, T., Okada, Y., Odachi, T., Horiguchi, S., Zhang, Z. -., Moon, C. -., & Ikeda, M. (1997). Diffusive sampling and biological monitoring of 2-bromopropane. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 33(1), 23-28. doi:10.1007/s002449900218Analytical methodsArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology1997The possibilities to apply personal ambient air monitoring by diffusive sampling and biological exposure monitoring by urinalysis for 2-bromopropane or its metabolites were explored. The abilities of carbon cloth to adsorb 2- bromo-propane was examined by experimental vapor exposure followed by solvent extraction and FID-GC. Urine from factory workers and rats exposed to 2- bromopropane were analyzed for 2-bromopropane, acetone and isopropyl alcohol by FID-GC, and for bromide ion by ECD-GC after chemical methylation. Carbon cloth adsorbed 2-bromopropane in a manner linearly related to exposures up to 1500 mg/m3 and to 8 h. The adsorption could quantitatively detect a 15 min peak exposure at 3,000 mg/m3. In rat experiments, analyses of urine samples collected over a 4-h period after termination of a 4-h exposure to 2- bromopropane at 500, 1,000 or 1,500 mg/m3 showed that acetone and bromide ion were excreted dose-dependently. Essentially, no 2-bromopropane or isopropyl alcohol was detected. When the analytical methods were applied to urine samples from 5 male workers exposed to 2-bromopropane at a low level (3 mg/m3 as a geometric mean), acetone and bromide ion levels were within respective normal ranges in four cases, but were higher than the upper limits of the normal ranges in the fifth case of a foreman who probably had the highest exposure. Thus, diffusive sampling is applicable to monitor exposure to 2-bromopropane. Urinalysis for acetone and bromide ion in combination appears to be a promising selective tool for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 2-bromopropane.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs002449900218Halogenated Solvents2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
Chinese[Determination of1-bromopropane in the workplace air by GC-FID]Wu, C. H., Xu, F., Chang, X. L., Xu, X., Liu, J. C., & Zhou, Z. J. (2013). [Determination of1-bromopropane in the workplace air by GC-FID]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi = Zhonghua Laodong Weisheng Zhiyebing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, 31(6), 467-469. Analytical methodsZhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases2013To establish a method for determination 1-bromopropane (1-BP) in workplace air by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). 1-bromopropane in workplace air was collected with activated charcoal tube, then desorbed by carbon disulfide and determined by GC-FID. 1-bromopropane was quantitatively measured using retention time and peak area. Linear regression formula was Y = 3353.4x-10064 in a range of 2.50 ∼ 500.00 μg/ml with regression coefficient R = 0.9998. Detection limit was 0.25 μg/ml and the lowest detection concentration of 1-brmopropane in air was 0.14 mg/m(3) (at air volume 1.8L). The mean recoveries of 1-BP were between 96.8% and 102.6%, and relative standard deviation of inter and intra-assay was less than 10%. The average desorption efficiencies were between 93.2% and 104.4%. The samples in activated charcoal tube could be stably stored for 5 days at room temperature. The method could be feasible to determine 1-bromopropane in workplace air.n.a.Halogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5
EnglishDevelopment and evaluation of class-1 solvent 1, 2-Dichloroethane and dimethyl sulphate as a genotoxic impurity in sildenafil citrate drug substance by using GC-MS techniqueKakasaheb, N. A., Sandhyakumari, B., Ramakrishna, K., & Srinivasarao, V. (2014). Development and evaluation of class-1 solvent 1, 2-dichloroethane and dimethyl sulphate as a genotoxic impurity in sildenafil citrate drug substance by using GC-MS technique. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(4), 552-555.Analytical methodsInternational Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences2014Objective: Method for determination of 1, 2-Dichloroethane (DCE) and Dimethyl sulphate (DMS) was required in Sildenafil citrate. 1, 2- Dichloroethane is class-1 solvent and Dimethyl sulphate is genotoxic impurity so sensitive, highly efficient and selective analytical technique has been developed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: The best results were achieved by using DB-624 30 m x 0.25 mm x 1.4 μm column with electron impact ionization technique quadruple mass analyzer. Gas chromatography column DB-624 is an intermediate polarity column with 6 % cyanopropyl phenol, 94 % dimethyl polysiloxane as stationary phase. Results: Limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantification (LOQ) for 1, 2-Dichloroethane are 0.5 μg/g and 1.5 μg/g respectively (0.02 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL). LOD and LOQ values obtained for Dimethyl sulphate are 1.6 μg/g and 5.0 μg/g respectively (0.06 μg/mL and 0.20 μg/mL). Also method is evaluated for accuracy at 50 to 150 % of the evaluation limit. Results obtained for accuracy are very well within the acceptable criteria. Calibration curve showed good linearity over the concentration range LOQ to 150 % of the evaluation level. The correlation coefficient values observed are 0.99416 and 0.99141 for 1, 2-Dichloroethane and Dimethyl sulphate which is very good at such a low level. Conclusion: Based on the validation data it is concluded that the method is sensitive, precise, accurate and linear as per the parameters conducted for the validation activity and is suitable for the routine use.n.a.Halogenated Solventsdichloromethane, 75-09-2
EnglishNear infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for the determination of dichloromethane extractable matter and moisture content in combed wool sliversInnocenti, R., & Zoccola, M. (2003). Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for the determination of dichloromethane extractable matter and moisture content in combed wool slivers. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 11(5), 333-340.Analytical methodsJournal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy2003In the wool textile field the quantitative determination of solvent extractable matter and moisture content is a crucial analysis for the evaluation of combed sliver quality. The test carried out includes the acquisition of a series of data about dichloromethane soluble matter (according to the International Wool Textile Organisation - IWTO 10-01 specification), and moisture content in combed wool slivers and the search for a correlation between these data and the near infrared spectra of samples. Combed wool slivers tested were of different origins and variable mean diameters and were obtained from different combing mills in the industrial district of Biella, the principal wool textile region of Italy. The spectrophotometer used was a FT-NIR system (Perkin-Elmer Spectrum IdentiCheck). Spectra were collected in the region from 3700 to 10,000 cm-1 in reflection mode. The extraction of greasy matter from wool tops was carried out with a continuous extraction technique on a 10 g wool sample with a total extraction time of about 3 hours in a soxhlet apparatus. The results express the weight (obtained by the mean of two determinations) of the dichloromethane soluble extract as a percentage of the dry weight of the de-greased sample. For the determination of dichloromethane extractable matter, 103 samples were used for calibration. Some wool samples were deliberately under-scoured and others were re-scoured in a combing mill in order to obtain a wide range of data, ranging from 1.15% to 0.21%. Spectra were analysed using Quant+ (Perkin-Elmer Software). The best results were obtained with the PLS1 (Partial Least Square) algorithm when considering the spectral region 9000-3800 cm-1 [Standard Error of Prediction (SEP) = 0.1042 , mean value (M) = 0.6963%, Coefficient of Determination (R2) = 0.85]. A cross-validation was used. The determination of moisture content in combed wool sliver was performed by drying wool (80 g for a single determination) in an oven to constant weight using forced air at 105 ± 2°C. 85 samples were used for the calibration. Deliberate variations in regain were induced by exposing the wool to a dry or moist atmosphere. In this way moisture contents ranging from 9% to 15% were obtained. NIR spectra were analysed using Quant+ Software. A cross-validation was used. The best results were obtained with the Principal Component Regression algorithm when considering the spectral region 9000-3800 cm -1. A SEP of 0.4954 (M = 11.76%) and a R2 of 0.90 were found. A limited number of determinations of grease and moisture content were carried out using the models obtained and compared with values determined manually.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1255/jnirs.384Halogenated Solventsdichloromethane, 75-09-2
EnglishFull method validation for the determination of hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene in fish tissue by GC-IDMSMajoros, L. I., Lava, R., Ricci, M., Binici, B., Sandor, F., Held, A., & Emons, H. (2013). Full method validation for the determination of hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene in fish tissue by GC-IDMS. Talanta, 116, 251-258. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2013.04.080Analytical methodsTalanta2013This paper summarizes the validation strategy and the results obtained for the simultaneous determination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) in fish tissue with a maximum of about 10% m/m fat content using a GC–IDMS technique. The method is applicable for the determination of HCB and HCBD at trace levels in different kinds of fish tissue samples in accordance with the requirements of the EU Directive 2008/105/EC establishing Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) levels for biota in aquatic ecosystems (10 ng/g for HCB and 55 ng/g for HCBD).

The method validation aimed to assess performance parameters such as linearity, limit of detection/limit of quantification (LOD/LOQ), trueness, selectivity, intermediate precision, repeatability, stability of the extracts and robustness. The validation experiments have been performed by using uncontaminated fish tissue. Trueness was evaluated by using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1947) (where applicable) and by the standard addition method. Very good linear signal-concentration curves were obtained for both analytes over the whole range of calibration. The repeatability and the intermediate precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) and calculated at the EQS level, were estimated to be below 3% both for HCB and HCBD. The limits of quantification were 3.7 ng/g for HCB and 15.7 ng/g for HCBD in the fish.

An uncertainty budget for the measurement of both HCB and HCBD in fish at about the EQS levels, applying the described method, has been established in the order of 10%.

The analytical method and its performance characteristics take into account the requirements of EU Directive 2009/90/EC regarding the establishment of minimum performance criteria for the methods of analysis to be used in the water monitoring activity of the Water Framework Directive. Finally, the validated method was successfully tested on contaminated Silurus glanis from Ebro River (Spain). The method will be used in the homogeneity, stability and interlaboratory comparison studies for the characterization of a new candidate certified reference material.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914013003950?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventshexachlorobenzene, 118-74-1, 55600-34-5; hexachlorobutadiene, 87-68-3
EnglishA proportionate cancer morbidity ratio study of workers exposed to chlorinated organic solvents in TaiwanChang, Y. -., Tai, C. -., Lin, R. S., Yang, S. -., Chen, C. -., Shih, T. -., & Liou, S. -. (2003). A proportionate cancer morbidity ratio study of workers exposed to chlorinated organic solvents in taiwan. Industrial Health, 41(2), 77-87. doi:10.2486/indhealth.41.77ToxicityIndustrial Health2003We initiated an investigation to examine the possible association between the cancer risk and the chlorinated organic solvents exposure in an electronic factory. To obtain information on the incidence of the various types of cancer among the exposed and comparison groups, the cohort populations were merged with the National Mortality Database, the National Cancer Registry Database, and the National Insurance Hospitalization Database from the Department of Health (DOH), as well as the Labor Insurance Hospitalization Database from the Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI). The proportionate cancer morbidity ratio (PCMR) was used to estimate the cancer risk of the exposed workers in comparison with either textile workers or electronics workers. After adjustment for age, only the PCMR for breast cancer in the exposed female employees was significantly elevated when compared with the two comparison groups. The increased risk of breast cancer was mainly found in the category of 1989-1997 for year of diagnosis when stratified by calendar year. However, there was no dose-response relationship between female breast cancer risk and duration of employment. Although some PCMRs for the cancers were also increased in the exposed group, female breast cancer was consistently increased when compared with both textile and electronics comparison groups using different exclusion criteria. The results obtained in the present study suggest a possible association between exposure to chlorinated organic solvents and female breast cancer. Since this association has never been reported in the previous studies, further study is needed to clarify the association.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth1963/41/2/41_2_77/_articleHalogenated Solventschlorinated organic solvents 107-06-2 127-18-4 56-23-5 630-20-6 67-66-3 67-72-1 71-55-6 75-09-2 75-34-3 75-35-4 76-01-7 79-00-5 79-01-6 79-34-5 87-68-3 96-18-4 96-23-1
EnglishRetrospective assessment of exposure by experts: The example of formaldehyde, solvents and mineral oils among textile and metal workersBelletti, I., Troschel, L., Pisani, P., & Berrino, F. (1993). Retrospective assessment of exposure by experts: The example of formaldehyde, solvents and mineral oils among textile and metal workers. International Journal of Epidemiology, 22, S127-S133. doi:10.1093/ije/22.Supplement_2.S127ToxicityInternational Journal of Epidemiology2003The validity of retrospective assessment of occupational exposure greatly depends on the amount of detail in the available information, on the knowledge of the specific industrial process by the experts, and on the criteria adopted to define relevant exposure. These criteria are difficult to standardize and are rarely made explicit in published reports, which makes it difficult to interpret inconsistencies among different studies. In two ongoing case-control studies on kidney cancer and, respectively, malignant lymphomas, a detailed occupational history was obtained and supplemented by 19 additional questionnaires, specifically addressing industrial activities where the knowledge of job title alone would have been insufficient for reliable exposure assessment. One further questionnaire was used to collect details of task and environment for all the other activities. These data are used to establish probability, intensity and frequency of exposure to 30 substances known or suspected to be carcinogenic from previous studies. There are two basic steps in the exposure assessment procedure: firstly, general rules are defined for each job within each activity covered by specific questionnaires; secondly the judgement is modulated according to the detailed tasks, working conditions and environment. To illustrate the process and to facilitate comparison with other studies, examples are given for a few common exposures in the textile and metal industries —the two most frequent economic activities in the study area - namely exposure to mineral oils, formaldehyde, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and other organic solvents. © International Epidemiological Association 1993.https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-abstract/22/Supplement_2/S127/693004?redirectedFrom=fulltextHalogenated Solventschlorinated organic solvents 107-06-2 127-18-4 56-23-5 630-20-6 67-66-3 67-72-1 71-55-6 75-09-2 75-34-3 75-35-4 76-01-7 79-00-5 79-01-6 79-34-5 87-68-3 96-18-4 96-23-1
EnglishUses of and exposure to trichloroethylene in u.s. industry: A systematic literature reviewBakke, B., Stewart, P. A., & Waters, M. A. (2007). Uses of and exposure to trichloroethylene in u.s. industry: A systematic literature review. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 4(5), 375-390. doi:10.1080/15459620701301763ToxicityJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene2007This article describes a systematic review of the industrial hygiene literature for uses of trichloroethylene (TCE) in industry for the exposure assessment of two population-based case control studies of brain cancer in the United States. Papers and reports that address uses of and exposures to TCE were identified from MEDLINE, TOXLINE, NIOSHTIC, the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation database (keywords: chlorinated solvents and trichloroethylene), and in other reviews. This search was complemented by reviewing the reference lists from the identified literature. The collected information was systematized by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system, and measurement data reported in the literature were summarized in a database. TCE use was extensive from the early 1920s through the 1970s mainly as a degreasing agent in metal-fabricating operations. After the 1970s it became less popular because of environmental concerns. TCE historically has had a multitude of uses in many other industries, e.g., dry cleaning, textile, electronics, leather, and rubber. Also, many products like adhesives, drugs, paints, inks, and various industrial products have contained TCE. It was banned as a food additive and in cosmetics in 1977. The arithmetic mean (AM) of the measurements across all industries and decades was 38.2 ppm. The highest personal and area air levels were reported in vapor degreasing (AM of 44.6 ppm). Most TCE measurements were performed in the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s. The data described here could be used by exposure assessors as is to identify the presence and approximate levels of exposure. Using the same information as a basis should increase the reliability of the assessments, making it easier to compare both the exposure assessment methods and the epidemiologic results across different studies. © 1998 Taylor and Francis.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15459620701301763Halogenated Solvents79-01-6
EnglishPrioritising action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: A socioeconomic and health impact assessmentCherrie, J. W., Hutchings, S., Gorman Ng, M., Mistry, R., Corden, C., Lamb, J., . . . Rushton, L. (2017). Prioritising action on occupational carcinogens in europe: A socioeconomic and health impact assessment. British Journal of Cancer, 117(2), 274-281. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.161ToxicityBritish Journal of Cancer2017Background:Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment.Methods:The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits.Results:It was estimated that if no action is taken there will be >700 000 attributable cancer deaths over the next 60 years for the substances assessed. However, there are only seven substances where the data suggest a clear benefit in terms of avoided cancer cases from introducing a binding limit at the levels considered. Overall, the costs of the proposed interventions were very high (up to [euro ]34 000 million) and the associated monetised health benefits were mostly less than the compliance costs.Conclusions:The strongest cases for the introduction of a limit value are for: respirable crystalline silica, hexavalent chromium, and hardwood dust. © 2017 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.https://www.nature.com/articles/bjc2017161Halogenated Solvents1,2 dibromoethane, 106-93-4; 1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2; 1,3 butadiene, 106-99-0, 25339-57-5; 2 methylaniline, 95-53-4; 2 nitropropane, 79-46-9; 4,4' methylenedianiline, 101-77-9; acrylamide, 79-06-1; benzo[a]pyrene, 50-32-8; chromium, 16065-83-1, 7440-47-3, 14092-98-9; epichlorohydrin, 106-89-8; ethylene oxide, 16002-48-5, 32587-16-9, 36376-18-8, 75-21-8; hexachlorobenzene, 118-74-1, 55600-34-5; hydrazine, 10217-52-4, 13775-80-9, 18500-32-8, 302-01-2, 7803-57-8; propylene oxide, 75-56-9; silicon dioxide, 10279-57-9, 14464-46-1, 14808-60-7, 15468-32-3, 60676-86-0, 7631-86-9; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6; vinyl chloride, 75-01-4;
EnglishDevelopment of an inhalation unit risk factor for ethylene dibromideSchaefer, H. R., & Myers, J. L. (2017). Development of an inhalation unit risk factor for ethylene dibromide. Inhalation Toxicology, 29(7), 304-309. doi:10.1080/08958378.2017.1369603ToxicityInhalation Toxicology2017The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) follows standard scientific methods to develop up-to-date toxicity factors for chemicals emitted in the state of Texas. An inhalation unit risk factor (URF) was developed for ethylene dibromide (EDB, CAS 106-93-4) based on an increased incidence of nasal cavity adenocarcinomas observed in female rats in a 2-year inhalation cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The NTP study provided evidence of several EDB-induced tumors in male and female rats and in female mice. Tumor incidences that were statistically increased at the low dose and that showed a statistically significant increasing trend were considered in identifying the critical effect. Following benchmark concentration (BMC) modeling and animal-to-human dosimetric adjustments, the increased incidence of nasal cavity adenocarcinomas observed in female rats was determined to be the most sensitive tumorigenic effect in the most sensitive species and sex and was utilized as the carcinogenic endpoint for the development of the URF. The 95% lower confidence limit of the BMC at the 10% excess risk level (BMCL10 of 292.8 ppb) was determined for calculation of the URF. The resulting URF based on increased nasal cavity adenocarcinomas observed in female rats is 3.4E-04 per ppb (4.4E-05 per µg/m3). The lifetime air concentration corresponding to a no significant excess risk level of one in 100,000 is 0.029 ppb (0.22 µg/m3), which is considered sufficiently health-protective for use in protecting the general public against the potential carcinogenic effects of chronic exposure to EDB in ambient air. © 2017 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08958378.2017.1369603Halogenated Solvents106-93-4
EnglishEvaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus and transgenic rodent gene mutation tests to detect rodent carcinogensMorita, T., Hamada, S., Masumura, K., Wakata, A., Maniwa, J., Takasawa, H., . . . Honma, M. (2016). Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus and transgenic rodent gene mutation tests to detect rodent carcinogens. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 802, 1-29. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2016.03.008ToxicityMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis2016Sensitivity and/or specificity of the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus (MN) and transgenic rodent mutation (TGR) tests to detect rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens were investigated. The Carcinogenicity and Genotoxicity eXperience (CGX) dataset created by Kirkland et al. was used for the carcinogenicity and in vitro genotoxicity data, i.e., Ames and chromosome aberration (CA) tests. Broad literature surveys were conducted to gather in vivo MN or TGR test data to add to the CGX dataset. Genotoxicity data in vitro were also updated slightly. Data on 379 chemicals (293 carcinogens and 86 non-carcinogens) were available for the in vivo MN test; sensitivity, specificity or concordances were calculated as 41.0%, 60.5% or 45.4%, respectively. For the TGR test, data on 80 chemicals (76 carcinogens and 4 non-carcinogens) were available; sensitivity was calculated as 72.4%. Based on the recent guidance on genotoxicity testing strategies, performance (sensitivity/specificity) of the following combinations was calculated; Ames + in vivo MN (68.7%/45.3%), Ames + TGR (83.8%/not calculated (nc)), Ames + in vitro CA + in vivo MN (80.8%/21.3%), Ames + in vitro CA + TGR (89.1%/nc), Ames + in vivo MN + TGR (87.5%/nc), Ames + in vitro CA + in vivo MN + TGR (89.3%/nc). Relatively good balance in performance was shown by the Ames + in vivo MN in comparison with Ames + in vitro CA (74.3%/37.5%). Ames + TGR and Ames + in vivo MN + TGR gave even higher sensitivity, but the specificity could not be calculated (too few TGR data on non-carcinogens). This indicates that in vivo MN and TGR tests are both useful as in vivo tests to detect rodent carcinogens. © 2016 The Authors.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S138357181530019X?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents106-93-4
EnglishEstimating the carcinogenic potency of chemicals from the in vivo micronucleus testSoeteman-Hernandez, L. G., Johnson, G. E., & Slob, W. (2016). Estimating the carcinogenic potency of chemicals from the in vivo micronucleus test. Mutagenesis, 31(3), 347-358. doi:10.1093/mutage/gev043ToxicityMutagenesis2016In this study, we investigated the applicability of using in vivo mouse micronucleus (MN) data to derive cancer potency information. We also present a new statistical methodology for correlating estimated potencies between in vivo MN tests and cancer studies, which could similarly be used for other systems (e.g. in vitro vs. in vivo genotoxicity tests). The dose-response modelling program PROAST was used to calculate benchmark doses (BMDs) for estimating the genotoxic and carcinogenic potency for 48 compounds in mice; most of the data were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database, while some additional data were retrieved from the Carcinogenic Potency Database and published studies. BMD05s (doses with 5% increase in MN frequency) were derived from MN data, and BMD10s (doses with 10% extra cancer risk) were derived from carcinogenicity data, along with their respective lower (BMDL) and upper (BMDU) confidence bounds. A clear correlation between the in vivo MN BMD05s and the cancer BMD10s was observed when the lowest BMD05 from the in vivo MN was plotted against the lowest BMD10 from the carcinogenicity data for each individual compound. By making a further selection of BMDs related to more or less equally severe cancer lesions, the correlation was considerably improved. Getting a general scientific consensus on how we can quantitatively compare different tumour lesion types and investigating the impact of MN study duration are needed to refine this correlation analysis. Nevertheless, our results suggest that a BMD derived from genotoxicity data might provide a prediction of the tumour potency (BMD10) with an uncertainty range spanning roughly a factor of 100. © 2015 The Author.https://academic.oup.com/mutage/article/31/3/347/2622781Halogenated Solvents106-93-4
EnglishEffects of sub-acute and sub-chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane on neurogenesis in adult ratsZhang, L., Nagai, T., Yamada, K., Ibi, D., Ichihara, S., Subramanian, K., . . . Ichihara, G. (2013). Effects of sub-acute and sub-chronic inhalation of 1-bromopropane on neurogenesis in adult rats. Toxicology, 304, 76-82. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.12.009ToxicityToxicology2013Purpose: 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) intoxication is associated with depression and cognitive and memory deficits. The present study tested the hypothesis that 1-BP suppresses neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, which is involved in higher cerebral function, in adult rats. Methods: Four groups of 12 male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 400, 800, 1000. ppm 1-BP, 8. h/day for 7 days. Another four groups of six rats each were exposed to 0, 400, 800 and 1000. ppm 1-BP for 2 weeks followed by 0, 200, 400 and 800. ppm for another 2 weeks, respectively. Another four groups of six rats each were exposed to 0, 200, 400 and 800. ppm 1-BP for 4 weeks. Rats were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) after 4-week exposure at 1000/800. ppm to examine neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by immunostaining. We measured factors known to affect neurogenesis, including monoamine levels, and mRNA expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), in different brain regions. Results: BrdU-positive cells were significantly lower in the 800/1000. ppm-4-week group than the control. 1-Week exposure to 1-BP at 800 and 1000. ppm significantly reduced noradrenalin level in the striatum. Four-week exposure at 800. ppm significantly decreased noradrenalin levels in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. 1-BP also reduced hippocampal BDNF and GR mRNA levels. Conclusion: Long-term exposure to 1-BP decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Downregulation of BDNF and GR mRNA expression and low hippocampal norepinephrine levels might contribute, at least in part, to the reduced neurogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300483X12004283?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5; 2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishDNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropaneToraason, M., Lynch, D. W., DeBord, D. G., Singh, N., Krieg, E., Butler, M. A., . . . Nemhauser, J. B. (2006). DNA damage in leukocytes of workers occupationally exposed to 1-bromopropane. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 603(1), 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.08.015ToxicityMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis20061-Bromopropane (1-BP; n-propyl bromide) (CAS No. 106-94-5) is an alternative to ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons that has a variety of potential applications as a degreasing agent for metals and electronics, and as a solvent vehicle for spray adhesives. Its isomer, 2-brompropane (2-BP; isopropyl bromide) (CAS No. 75-26-3) impairs antioxidant cellular defenses, enhances lipid peroxidation, and causes DNA damage in vitro. The present study had two aims. The first was to assess DNA damage in human leukocytes exposed in vitro to 1- or 2-BP. DNA damage was also assessed in peripheral leukocytes from workers with occupational exposure to 1-BP. In the latter assessment, start-of- and end-of-work week blood and urine samples were collected from 41 and 22 workers at two facilities where 1-BP was used as a solvent for spray adhesives in foam cushion fabrication. Exposure to 1-BP was assessed from personal-breathing zone samples collected for 1–3 days up to 8 h per day for calculation of 8 h time weighted average (TWA) 1-BP concentrations. Bromide (Br) was measured in blood and urine as a biomarker of exposure. Overall, 1-BP TWA concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 271 parts per million (ppm) at facility A, and from 4 to 27 ppm at facility B. The highest exposures were to workers classified as sprayers. 1-BP TWA concentrations were statistically significantly correlated with blood and urine Br concentrations. The comet assay was used to estimate DNA damage. In vitro, 1- or 2-BP induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 1 mM. In 1-BP exposed workers, start-of- and end-of-workweek comet endpoints were stratified based on job classification. There were no significant differences in DNA damage in leukocytes between workers classified as sprayers (high 1-BP exposure) and those classified as non-sprayers (low 1-BP exposure). At the facility with the high exposures, comparison of end-of-week values with start-of-week values using paired analysis revealed non-sprayers had significantly increased comet tail moments, and sprayers had significantly increased comet tail moment dispersion coefficients. A multivariate analysis included combining the data sets from both facilities, log transformation of 1-BP exposure indices, and the use of multiple linear regression models for each combination of DNA damage and exposure indices including exposure quartiles. The covariates were gender, age, smoking status, facility, and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTT1) polymorphisms. In the regression models, start-of-week comet tail moment in leukocytes was significantly associated with serum Br quartiles. End-of-week comet tail moment was significantly associated with 1-BP TWA quartiles, and serum Br quartiles. Gender, facility, and GSTM1 had a significant effect in one or more models. Additional associations were not identified from assessment of dispersion coefficients. In vitro and in vivo results provide limited evidence that 1-BP exposure may pose a small risk for increasing DNA damage.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1383571805003219?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5; 2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishCytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane on embryonic development in mouse blastocystsChan, W. -. (2010). Cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane on embryonic development in mouse blastocysts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 11(2), 731-744. doi:10.3390/ijms11020731ToxicityInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences20102-Bromopropane (2-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, is used as a cleaning solvent. Here, we examined the cytotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane (2-BP) on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated in medium with or without 2-BP (2.5, 5 or 10 μM) for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated with dual differential staining, apoptosis was analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, and implantation and post-implantation development of embryos were assessed using in vitro development analysis and in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP displayed significantly increased apoptosis, and decreased inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell number. Additionally, the implantation success rates of 2-BP-pretreated blastocysts were lower than those of untreated controls. In vitro treatment with 5 or 10 μM 2-BP was associated with increased resorption of postimplantation embryos, and decreased placental and fetal weights. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to 2-BP induces apoptosis, suppresses implantation rates after transfer to host mice, and retards early postimplantation development. © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International.http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/11/2/731Halogenated Solvents2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishBromopropane compounds increase the stemness of colorectal cancer cellsCho, Y. -., Nguyen, T. T., Park, S. -., Kim, K., Kim, H. S., Jeong, H. G., . . . Kim, H. (2017). Bromopropane compounds increase the stemness of colorectal cancer cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(9) doi:10.3390/ijms18091888ToxicityInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences2017Bromopropane (BP) compounds, including 1-bromopropane, 2-bromopropane, and 1,2-dibromopropane, are used in industry for various purposes, and their deleterious effects on human health are becoming known. In this study, we examined the effects of BP compounds on the stemness of colorectal cancer cells. At low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, BP compounds significantly increased spheroid formation in CSC221, DLD1, Caco2, and HT29 cells. In addition, the levels of cancer stem cell markers, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133), CD44, Lgr5, Musashi-1, Ephrin receptor, and Bmi-1 increased after exposure to BP compounds. BP compounds increased the transcriptional activity of the TOPflash and glioma-associated oncogene homolog zinc finger protein (Gli) promoters in reporter assays and increased the expression of Gli-1, Gli-2, Smoothened (SMO), and β-catenin by RT-PCR. These results demonstrate for the first time that BP compounds have the potential to promote cancer stemness. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/18/9/1888Halogenated Solvents2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishMultisite carcinogenicity and respiratory toxicity of inhaled 1-bromopropane in rats and miceMorgan, D. L., Nyska, A., Harbo, S. J., Grumbein, S. L., Dill, J. A., Roycroft, J. H., . . . Cesta, M. F. (2011). Multisite carcinogenicity and respiratory toxicity of inhaled 1-bromopropane in rats and mice. Toxicologic Pathology, 39(6), 938-948. doi:10.1177/0192623311416374ToxicityToxicologic Pathology2011Two-year 1-bromopropane (1-BP) inhalation studies were conducted because of the potential for widespread exposure, the lack of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity data, and the known carcinogenicity of structurally related compounds. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, or 500 (rats only) ppm 1-BP for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 105 weeks. Exposure of male and female rats to 1-BP resulted in significantly increased incidences of adenomas of the large intestine and skin neoplasms. In male rats, the incidence of malignant mesothelioma of the epididymis was statistically significantly increased at 500 ppm, but the biological significance of this common lesion is unclear. Incidences of pancreatic islet adenoma in male rats were significantly increased at all concentrations relative to concurrent controls but were within the historical control range for inhalation studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of 1-BP in male B6C3F1 mice; however, significantly increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms of the lung were present in female mice. Exposure to 1-BP also resulted in increased incidences of nonneoplastic lesions in the nose of rats and mice, the larynx of rats and male mice, the trachea of female rats and male and female mice, and the lungs of mice. Inflammatory lesions with Splendore Hoeppli (S-H) material were present primarily in the nose and skin of exposed male and female rats, indicating that 1-BP caused immunosuppression. © Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2011.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0192623311416374Halogenated Solvents1 bromopropane, 106-94-5; 2 bromopropane, 75-26-3;
EnglishDose-dependent neurologic abnormalities in workers exposed to 1-bromopropaneLi, W., Shibata, E., Zhou, Z., Ichihara, S., Wang, H., Wang, Q., . . . Ichihara, G. (2010). Dose-dependent neurologic abnormalities in workers exposed to 1-bromopropane. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52(8), 769-777. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181eaded7ToxicityJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2010Objectives: To investigate the health effects of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) and its dose-dependency in 1-BP production factories in China. Methods: Data of 60 female and 26 male workers in three 1-BP factories and the same number of age-, sex-, and region-matched controls were interviewed and examined. The time-weighed average exposure levels of individual workers were estimated. Results: Regression analysis on exposure level showed dose-dependent increase in the distal latency of tibial nerve, threshold for vibration sense in toes, lactate dehydrogenase, thyroid stimulating hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone in female workers. The analysis also showed dose-dependent decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocity of the sural nerve, red blood cell, and hematocrit in female workers. Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure to 1-BP induces dose-dependent neurotoxicity in female workers. © 2010 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00043764-201008000-00001Halogenated Solvents2 bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishLC50 of 2-bromopropaneHyeon Yeong Kim, Yong Hyun Chung, Kwan Hyung Yi, Jung Gil Kim, & Il Je Yu. (1996). LC50 of 2-bromopropane. Industrial Health, 34(4), 403-407.ToxicityIndustrial Health1996LC50 of 2-bromopropane was reexamined by using the OECD guideline in ICR mouse. The mice, 3 males and 3 females, were exposed to 2-bromopropane at five different concentrations for 4 h in inhalation chambers. The exposed animals were observed for 14 days. The animals which had survived and died were counted for the LC50 determination. The LC50 was calculated by using a dose-mortality curve at a 95 percent confidence level. The LC50 was 31,171 ppm, and the lowest lethal LC50 (LLC) was lower than 29.528 ppm and the lethal LC50 at 100% (LC50) was higher than 32,905 ppm.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth1963/34/4/34_4_403/_articleHalogenated Solvents2-bromopropane, 75-26-3
EnglishCytogenetic effects of 1,1-dichloroethane in mice bone marrow cellsPatlolla, B. P., Patlolla, A. K., & Tchounwou, P. B. (2005). Cytogenetic effects of 1,1-dichloroethane in mice bone marrow cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2(1), 101-106. doi:10.3390/ijerph2005010101ToxicityInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health2005The major concern for the halogenated compounds is their widespread distribution, in addition to occupational exposures. Several chlorinated alkanes and alkenes were found to induce toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic potential of 1,1-dichloroethane in the bone marrow cells obtained from Swiss-Webster mice, using chromosomal aberrations (CA), mitotic index (MI), and micronuclei (MN) formation as toxicological endpoints. Five groups of three male mice each, weighing an average of 24 + 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once with doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) of 1,1-dichloroethane dissolved in ethanol. A control group was also made of three animals injected with ethanol (1%) without the chemical. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparations were obtained from bone marrow cells following standard protocols. Chromatid and chromosome aberrations were investigated in 100 metaphase cells per animal and percent micronuclei frequencies were investigated in 1,000 metaphase cells per animal. 1,1-dichloroethane exposures significantly increased the number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow cells of Swiss-Webster mice. Percent chromosomal aberrations of 2.67 + 0.577, 7.66 + 2.89, 8.33 + 2.08, 14.67 + 2.51, 20.3 + 3.21, 28 + 3.61; mitotic index of 9.4%, 7.9%, 6.2%, 4.3%, 3.0%, 2.6% and micronuclei frequencies of 3.33 + 0.7, 7.33 + 0.9, 8.00 + 1.0, 11.67 + 1.2, 15.33 + 0.7, 18.00 + 1.7 were recorded for the control, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kg BW respectively; indicating a gradual increase in number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation, with increasing dose of 1,1,-dichloroethane. Our results indicate that 1,1-dichloroethane has a genotoxic potential as measured by the bone marrow CA and MN tests in Swiss- Webster mice.http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/2/1/101Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
RussianDisturbances of the immune status during chronic intoxication with 1,2-dichloroethane and their treatment by administration of polyoxidoniumZabrodskii, P. F., Gromov, M. S., & Yafarova, I. K. (2013). Disturbances of the immune status during chronic intoxication with 1,2-dichloroethane and their treatment by administration of polyoxidonium. Eksperimental'Naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya, 76(8), 35-38.ToxicityEksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya2013It has been established in experiments on noninbred rats that chronic intoxication with 1,2-dichloroethane (30 days; total dose 0.9LD50; daily dose 0.03 mg/kg body weight) causes a reduction of immune responses, decreases the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of T-lymphocytes, reduces the concentration of blood cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, while not affecting the content of IL-10), and damages to a greater degree Th1 cells as compared to Th2 lymphocytes. The administration of polyoxidonium (daily dose, 150 mg/kg, for 7 days,) partially restored the immune status, the activity of AChE T cells, and the content of cytokines in the blood.

n.a.Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishLung Tumor Induction by 26-week Dermal Application of 1,2-Dichloroethane in CB6F1-Tg rasH2 MiceSuguro, M., Numano, T., Kawabe, M., Doi, Y., Imai, N., Mera, Y., & Tamano, S. (2017). Lung tumor induction by 26-week dermal application of 1,2-dichloroethane in CB6F1-tg rasH2 mice. Toxicologic Pathology, 45(3), 427-434. doi:10.1177/0192623317701003ToxicityToxicologic Pathology2017Short-term alternatives to traditional 2-year carcinogenic studies in rodents are being actively pursued. Recently, a 26-week short-term carcinogenicity study using CB6F1-Tg rasH2@Jcl (rasH2) mice has become a worldwide standard for the evaluation of chemical carcinogenesis. However, an acceptable short-term carcinogenic study model for dermally applied products is still lacking. To investigate the suitability of using the rasH2 mouse to test carcinogenic potential, 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) was dermally applied to rasH2 mice: 1,2-DCE is a known carcinogen that causes lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and adenocarcinomas when administered topically, orally, or by inhalation exposure; 1,2-DCE at a dose level of 126 mg/mouse in 200 μl acetone or acetone alone (vehicle control) was applied to the dorsal skin of 10 mice of each sex 3 times a week for 26 weeks. As a positive control, 10 mice of each sex received a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and adenocarcinomas were significantly increased in 1,2-DCE-treated rasH2 mice of both sexes, and bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasias were significantly increased in female mice. Overall, almost all mice of each sex developed adenomas and/or adenocarcinomas with 100% of female rasH2 mice developing bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas. © Society of Toxicologic Pathology.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0192623317701003Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishEarly non-invasive detection of acute 1,2-dichloroethane-induced toxic encephalopathy in ratsZhou, X., Cao, Y., Leuze, C., Nie, B., Shan, B., Zhou, W., . . . Xiao, B. (2016). Early non-invasive detection of acute 1,2-dichloroethane-induced toxic encephalopathy in rats. In Vivo, 30(6), 787-793. doi:10.21873/invivo.10995ToxicityIn Vivo2016Aim: To assess the acute effect of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) on rat brain using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Materials and Methods: We performed dMRI on 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats, microstructural alterations were investigated by calculating the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in eight selected brain regions of interest. For the whole brain, clusters of 20+ voxels that differed significantly in FA and ADC between groups were marked. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to confirm pathological changes. Results: Brain images showed lesions with brain edema in the white matter in both hemispheres in all groups exposed to 1,2-DCE. Diffusivity values were significantly different after 1,2-DCE inhalation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Primarily cytotoxic edema occurred in acute 1,2-DCE-induced brain edema in rats. dMRI could be used for the early non-invasive detection of acute 1,2-DCE-induced toxic encephalopathy. © 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.

http://iv.iiarjournals.org/content/30/6/787.abstractHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2;
EnglishDevelopment of resistance to chloroform toxicity in male BDF1 mice exposed to a stepwise increase in chloroform concentrationYamamoto, S., Nishizawa, T., Nagano, K., Aiso, S., Kasai, T., Takeuchi, T., & Matsushima, T. (1999). Development of resistance to chloroform toxicity in male BDF1 mice exposed to a stepwise increase in chloroform concentration. Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 24(5), 421-424. doi:10.2131/jts.24.5_421ToxicityJournal of Toxicological Sciences1999To investigate the development of resistance to chloroform toxicity, a 4-week inhalation study was conducted in which BDF1 male mice were exposed to a low level of chloroform for an initial two-week period, and thereafter the exposure concentration was increased for a second two-week period. The animals were exposed to inhalation of chloroform vapor 6 hr per day, 5 days per week, with clinical observation and measurement of body weight conducted. These results demonstrate that pre-exposure to chloroform at a low dose level induced resistance to a higher dose of chloroform in male mice. This resistance was dependent on the pre-exposure concentration.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jts1976/24/5/24_5_421/_articleHalogenated Solventschloroform, 67-66-3
EnglishDichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid increase chloroform toxicityDavis, M. E. (1992). Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid increase chloroform toxicity. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 37(1), 139-148. doi:10.1080/15287399209531661ToxicityJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health1992Tichloro- and trichloroacetic acids (DCA and TCA) and chloroform are formed during chlorination disinfection of drinking water. The effects of DCA and TCA treatment on CHCI3 toxicity were assessed in these studies. Male and female rats were gavaged with DCA or TCA (0.92 and 2.45 mmol/kg administered 3 times over 24 h). Three hours after the last dose CHCI3 was injected ip (0.75 mg/kg). Male rats experienced some weight loss (15%) and slight increases of ALT and BUN, but there were no effects of either DCA or TCA on any of these responses. In females, CHCI3 increased plasma ALT and this response was greater (up to threefold) in the DCA group, compared to saline controls. Similarly, BUN was increased by CHCI3 and this was more severe (up to threefold) in both the DCA and TCA pretreated groups. These results show that CHCI3 toxicity is increased by DCA and TCA, and this effect is gender-specific, occurring only in females. DCA increases both liver and kidney toxicity, whereas TCA affects only kidney toxicity. © 1992 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287399209531661Halogenated Solventschloroform, 67-66-3; dichloroacetic acid, 13425-80-4, 2156-56-1, 79-43-6; trichloroacetic acid, 14357-05-2, 76-03-9;
EnglishAcute liver injury in two workers exposed to chloroform in cleanrooms: A case reportKang, Y. J., Ahn, J., & Hwang, Y. -. (2014). Acute liver injury in two workers exposed to chloroform in cleanrooms: A case report. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 26(1) doi:10.1186/s40557-014-0049-5ToxicityAnnals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2014We report 2 cases of hepatotoxicity in cleanroom workers due to high retained chloroform air concentrations. The women, aged 34 and 41 years, who had been working in a medical endoscopic device manufacturer as cleanroom workers for approximately 40-45 days suffered severe liver damage. Two measured time-weighted averages of the chloroform concentration in the air in the cleanroom were 82.74 and 64.24 ppm, which are more than 6 times the legal occupational exposure limit in Korea. Only 7% of the cleanroom air was newly introduced from outside. The clinical courses of these cases and workplace inspection, led us to conclude that both cases of hepatotoxicity were caused by chloroform exposure. © 2014 Kang et al.; licensee Biomed Central Ltd.https://aoemj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40557-014-0049-5Halogenated Solventschloroform, 67-66-3
EnglishProbabilistic human health risk assessment for quarterly exposure to high chloroform concentrations in drinking-water distribution network of the province of Quebec, CanadaButeau, S., & Valcke, M. (2010). Probabilistic human health risk assessment for quarterly exposure to high chloroform concentrations in drinking-water distribution network of the province of quebec, canada. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues, 73(23), 1626-1644. doi:10.1080/15287394.2010.501718ToxicityJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues2010Because quarterly concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THM) exceeding the 80 μg/L guideline are often tolerated by the public health authorities of the Province of Quebec (Canada), this study examined whether quarterly episodes of high concentrations of THM may pose a risk to the health of its population. Using Monte Carlo simulations, a probabilistic risk assessment was performed for infants (0–<6 mo), toddlers (6 mo–<5 yr) and adults (≥20 yr). Multiroute exposure including ingestion of drinking water as well as inhalation and dermal exposure while showering or bathing was considered. The resulting absorbed doses were compared to short-term reference values for chloroform, used as surrogate for THM, by calculating risk quotients (RQ). On the basis of THM concentrations values in Quebec's drinking water distribution systems during the months of July to October and exceeding the guideline value (>80 μg/L), the 95th percentile value of RQ were 0.65, 0.46, and 0.24 for infants, toddlers, and adults, respectively. Back-calculation allowed determining that a chloroform concentration of 330 μg/L would result in RQ ≤ 1 for 99% of infants, the subgroup considered the most susceptible among the general population. Overall, this study showed that episodes of high THM concentration encountered in Quebec drinking-water distribution network need not be considered as an immediate health concern for the general population. However, these results should not be interpreted as an authorization to exceed the 80 μg/L standard but rather as a risk management tool for public health authorities.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287394.2010.501718Halogenated Solventschloroform, 67-66-3
EnglishWorkshop overview: Reassessment of the cancer risk of dichloromethane in humansStarr, T. B., Matanoski, G., Anders, M. W., & Andersen, M. E. (2006). Workshop overview: Reassessment of the cancer risk of dichloromethane in humans. Toxicological Sciences, 91(1), 20-28. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfj145ToxicityToxicological Sciences2006The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) classifies dichloromethane (DCM) as a “probable human carcinogen,” based upon its risk assessment conducted in the late 1980s (http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0070.htm). Since that time, cancer risk-assessment practices have evolved, leading to improved scientifically based methods for estimating risk and for illuminating as well as reducing residual uncertainties. A new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed, using data from human volunteers exposed to low DCM levels, that provides new information on the human to human variability in DCM metabolism and elimination (L. M. Sweeney et al., 2004, Toxicol. Lett. 154, 201–216). This information, along with data from other published human studies, has been used to develop a new cancer risk estimation model utilizing probabilistic methodology similar to that employed recently by U.S. EPA for other chemicals (ENVIRON Health Sciences Institute, 2005, Development of population cancer risk estimates for environmental exposure to dichloromethane using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Final Report to Eastman Kodak Company). This article summarizes the deliberations of a scientific peer-review panel convened on 3 and 4 May 2005 at the CIIT Centers for Health Research in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to review the “state of the science” for DCM and to critically evaluate the new information for its utility in assessing potential human cancer risks from DCM exposure. The panel (Melvin E Andersen, CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; A. John Bailer, Miami University, Scripps Gerontology Center, Oxford, OH 45056; Kenneth S. Crump, ENVIRON Health Sciences Institute, Ruston, LA 71270; Clifford R. Elcombe, University of Dundee, Biomedical Research Centre, Dundee DD1 9SY, United Kingdom; Linda S. Erdreich, Exponent, 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 1740, New York, NY 10170; Jeffery W. Fisher, University of Georgia, Department of Environmental Health Science, Athens, GA 30602; David Gaylor, Gaylor and Associates, LLC, Eureka Springs, AR 72631; F Peter Guengerich, Vanderbilt University, Department of Biochemistry, Nashville, TN 37232; Kenneth Mundt, ENVIRON Health Sciences Institute, Amherst, MA 01004; Lorenz R Rhomberg, Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA 021138; Charles Timchalk, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352), chaired by M.E.A., was composed of experts in xenobiotic metabolism and carcinogenic mechanisms, PBPK modeling, epidemiology, biostatistics, and quantitative risk assessment. Observers included representatives from U.S. EPA, CIIT, and Eastman Kodak Company (Kodak), as well as several consultants to Kodak. The workshop was organized and sponsored by Kodak, which employs DCM as a solvent in the production of imaging materials. Overall, the panel concluded that the new models for DCM risk assessment were scientifically and technically sound and represented an advance over those employed in past assessments.https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article/91/1/20/1672711Halogenated Solventsdichloromethane, 75-09-2
EnglishThree lines of evidence in a sediment toxicity evaluation for hexachlorobutadieneFuchsman, P. C., Sferra, J. C., & Barber, T. R. (2000). Three lines of evidence in a sediment toxicity evaluation for hexachlorobutadiene. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19(9), 2328-2337. doi:10.1002/etc.5620190924ToxicityEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry2000Three approaches were used in a site‐specific sediment toxicity evaluation for hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), a chemical not previously tested for toxicity in sediment. The results of a sediment dilution study, spiked sediment toxicity tests, and a probabilistic model based on equilibrium partitioning theory were used to estimate ecological effects thresholds for HCBD in sediments of a Gulf Coast estuary. Twenty‐nine sediment samples, including 11 undiluted samples and six dilution series, were tested for toxicity under estuarine conditions (10%0 salinity) using Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus. Site sediment was used as diluent, and all samples were assayed for a range of organic and inorganic chemicals. A logistic relationship was observed between HCBD concentrations and organism response, and nonlinear regression explained approximately 90% of the observed variation in amphipod survival as a function of HCBD. Spiked sediment toxicity test results generally agreed with the results of the dilution study, demonstrating the causality of the observed concentration–response relationship. Effects thresholds were estimated as HCBD concentrations corresponding to 80% amphipod survival. The most conservative effects thresholds from the spiked sediment and dilution studies were 0.63 mg/kg normalized to 1% total organic carbon (mg/kg1%OC) for H. azteca and 1.4 mg/kg1%OC for L. plumulosus. Aquatic LC50s for 10 species and a measured acute–chronic ratio from the published literature were used to predict a distribution of sediment effects thresholds for HCBD, with 10th and 90th percentile values of 2.6 and 45 mg/kg1%OC, respectively. The predicted and observed sediment effects thresholds thus agreed relatively well, although the H. azteca and L. plumulosus test results from this study seem to be somewhat more conservative than the majority of published aquatic toxicity test results.https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/etc.5620190924Halogenated Solventshexachlorobutadiene, 87-68-3
EnglishPollution topography of chlorobenzenes and hexachlorobutadiene in sediments along the Kaohsiung coast, Taiwan—a comparison of two consecutive years’ survey with statistical interpretationLee, C. -., Song, H. -., & Fang, M. -. (2005). Pollution topography of chlorobenzenes and hexachlorobutadiene in sediments along the kaohsiung coast, taiwan - A comparison of two consecutive years' survey with statistical interpretation. Chemosphere, 58(11), 1503-1516. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.095ToxicityChemosphere2005Forty sediments were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBs) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) to investigate their pollution topography along the Kaohsiung coast, Taiwan. Maximum CB concentrations found, varied from 15.4 ng/g dw for 1,2,3-TCB to 56.8 ng/g dw for 1,2,4-TCB, while higher HCBD concentrations were detected among north-bound stations (around the exit of the Tsoying outfall pipe) and its concentration decreases from north to south. Compared to a previous survey executed a year before, there is no statistically significant difference in CB and HCBD congeners between these two surveys (p = 0.68-0.87, two-tailed paired t-test). The spatial distribution of toxic index reveals that biological effects might occur near Tsoying and Dalinpu outfall pipe outlets which dispose of petro-chemical wastewater. Evidence found in this study also shows distinct CB patterns from the two nearby sources, the Dalinpu outfall pipe outlet and the Kaoping estuary. Principal component analysis shows that four principal components conducting CBs and HCBD distribution were extracted. Both the first two components (accounted for 58.8% of the total variance), comprised all of the CBs except HCB (DCBs to PeCB), were found not capable of differentiating any distinct pollution source. On the other hand, HCBD and HCB were extracted as third and fourth components, respectively, pointing out their distinct sources in this area. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653504012032?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents hexachlorobutadiene, 87-68-3
EnglishPentachloroethane (Book chapter)Abdollahi, M., & Behboudi, A. F. (2014). Pentachloroethane. Encyclopedia of toxicology: Third edition (pp. 775-777) doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386454-3.01152-0 ToxicityEncyclopedia of toxicology: Third edition (book)2014Pentachloroethane is a colorless liquid with sweetish camphor-like smell. Pentachloroethane is used as a solvent for oil and grease in metal cleaning industries. It is used to separate coal from impurities. No epidemiological data relevant to the carcinogenicity of pentachloroethane are available and there is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of pentachloroethane. Pentachloroethane is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Occupational exposure to pentachloroethane may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with pentachloroethane at workplaces where pentachloroethane is formed as a by-product. Monitoring data indicate that the general population may be exposed to pentachloroethane via inhalation of ambient air. Breathing pentachloroethane can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs. Exposure to pentachloroethane in long term may damage the liver and kidneys. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543011520Halogenated Solvents76-01-7 (Pentachloroethane)
EnglishHighly chlorinated unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants generated during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes: A case study in ChinaZhang, L., Yang, W., Zhang, L., & Li, X. (2015). Highly chlorinated unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants generated during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes: A case study in china. Chemosphere, 133, 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.02.044ToxicityChemosphere2015The formation of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may occur during various chlorination processes. In this study, emissions of unintentionally produced POPs during the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes were investigated. High concentrations of highly chlorinated compounds such as decachlorobiphenyl, octachloronaphthalene, octachlorostyrene, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and pentachlorobenzene were found in the carbon tetrachloride byproduct of the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes. The total emission amounts of hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hexachlorobutadiene, polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated naphthalenes, octachlorostyrene, and polychlorinated biphenyls released during the production of chlorinated methanes in China in 2010 were estimated to be 10080, 7350, 5210, 427, 212, and 167kg, respectively. Moreover, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were formed unintentionally during chlorinated methanes production, the emission factor for PCDDs/DFs was 364μg toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) t-1 product for residues, which should be added into the UNEP toolkit for updating. It was worth noting that a high overall toxic equivalency quotient from polychlorinated naphthalenes and PCDDs/DFs was generated from the chlorinated methanes production in China in 2010. The values reached 563 and 32.8g TEQ, respectively. The results of the study indicate that more research and improved management systems are needed to ensure that the methanol-based production of chlorinated methanes can be achieved safely. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653515001587?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventscarbon tetrachloride, 56-23-5; chlorine, 13981-72-1, 7782-50-5; hexachlorobenzene, 118-74-1, 55600-34-5; hexachlorobutadiene, 87-68-3; hexachlorocyclopentadiene, 77-47-4; hexachloroethane, 67-72-1; hydrochloric acid, 7647-01-0; methane, 74-82-8; methanol, 67-56-1; naphthalene, 91-20-3; pentachlorobenzene, 608-93-5; pentachloroethane, 76-01-7;
EnglishTarget organ metabolism, toxicity, and mechanisms of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene: Key similarities, differences, and data gapsCichocki, J. A., Guyton, K. Z., Guha, N., Chiu, W. A., Rusyn, I., & Lash, L. H. (2016). Target organ metabolism, toxicity, and mechanisms of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene: Key similarities, differences, and data gaps. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 359(1), 110-123. doi:10.1124/jpet.116.232629ToxicityJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics2016Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are high–production volume chemicals with numerous industrial applications. As a consequence of their widespread use, these chemicals are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which the general population is commonly exposed. It is widely assumed that TCE and PCE are toxicologically similar; both are simple olefins with three (TCE) or four (PCE) chlorines. Nonetheless, despite decades of research on the adverse health effects of TCE or PCE, few studies have directly compared these two toxicants. Although the metabolic pathways are qualitatively similar, quantitative differences in the flux and yield of metabolites exist. Recent human health assessments have uncovered some overlap in target organs that are affected by exposure to TCE or PCE, and divergent species- and sex-specificity with regard to cancer and noncancer hazards. The objective of this minireview is to highlight key similarities, differences, and data gaps in target organ metabolism and mechanism of toxicity. The main anticipated outcome of this review is to encourage research to 1) directly compare the responses to TCE and PCE using more sensitive biochemical techniques and robust statistical comparisons; 2) more closely examine interindividual variability in the relationship between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics for TCE and PCE; 3) elucidate the effect of coexposure to these two toxicants; and 4) explore new mechanisms for target organ toxicity associated with TCE and/or PCE exposure.http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/359/1/110Halogenated Solventstetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6;
EnglishModulation of hepatic and renal metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by alterations in status of cytochrome P450 and glutathioneLash, L. H., Putt, D. A., Huang, P., Hueni, S. E., & Parker, J. C. (2007). Modulation of hepatic and renal metabolism and toxicity of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene by alterations in status of cytochrome P450 and glutathione. Toxicology, 235(1-2), 11-26. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2007.03.001ToxicityToxicology2007The relative importance of metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) and perchloroethylene (Perc) by the cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathways in their acute renal and hepatic toxicity was studied in isolated cells and microsomes from rat kidney and liver after various treatments to modulate P450 activity/expression or GSH status. Inhibitors of P450 stimulated GSH conjugation of Tri and, to a lesser extent, Perc, in both kidney cells and hepatocytes. Perc was a more potent, acute cytotoxic agent in isolated kidney cells than Tri but Perc-induced toxicity was less responsive than Tri-induced toxicity to modulation of P450 status. These observations are consistent with P450-dependent bioactivation being more important for Tri than for Perc. Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes with Tri produced no acute cytotoxicity in isolated hepatocytes while Perc produced comparable cytotoxicity as in kidney cells. Modulation of P450 status in hepatocytes produced larger changes in Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity than in kidney cells, with non-selective P450 inhibitors increasing toxicity. Induction of CYP2E1 with pyridine also markedly increased sensitivity of hepatocytes to Tri but had little effect on Perc-induced cytotoxicity. Increases in cellular GSH concentrations increased Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity in kidney cells but not in hepatocytes, consistent with the role of GSH conjugation in Tri- and Perc-induced nephrotoxicity. In contrast, depletion of cellular GSH concentrations moderately decreased Tri- and Perc-induced cytotoxicity in kidney cells but increased cytotoxicity in hepatocytes, again pointing to the importance of different bioactivation pathways and modes of action in kidney and liver.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300483X07001102?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents tetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6;
EnglishReview of the epidemiologic literature on residential exposure to perchloroethyleneBukowski, J. A. (2011). Review of the epidemiologic literature on residential exposure to perchloroethylene. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 41(9), 771-782. doi:10.3109/10408444.2011.581649ToxicityCritical Reviews in Toxicology2011Perchloroethylene is a solvent that is widely used for dry cleaning. There has been considerable interest in the toxicity of this chemical because of the potential for low-level exposure among a large portion of the US population. Although substantial epidemiologic literature exists on high-level occupational exposure to perchloroethylene, there are relatively few studies dealing with lower-level residential exposure. In the current paper, the author reviews this limited residential literature, with special emphasis on strengths, limitations, and consistency. Reviewed studies primarily address neurobehavioral, cancer, and reproductive endpoints. Most studies used an ecological or cross-sectional design, with exposure defined by either drinking-water contamination or proximity to dry cleaning. In general, reviewed studies were highly exploratory, with inconsistencies and potential for bias that detract from interpretation of study findings. The magnitudes of reported effects are frequently incompatible with the effects reported from much higher occupational and human-chamber exposures. Overall, few reliable conclusions can be drawn from this sparse and highly limited body of literature.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/10408444.2011.581649Halogenated SolventsTetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4
EnglishReview: Risk assessment implications of variation in susceptibility to perchloroethylene due to genetic diversity, ethnicity, age, gender, diet and pharmaceuticalsSpearow, J. L., Gettmann, K., & Wade, M. (2017). Review: Risk assessment implications of variation in susceptibility to perchloroethylene due to genetic diversity, ethnicity, age, gender, diet and pharmaceuticals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 23(6), 1466-1492. doi:10.1080/10807039.2017.1327799ToxicityHuman and Ecological Risk Assessment2017Current cancer risk assessments do not adequately consider impacts of human inter-individual variability on susceptibility to environmental pollutants like perchloroethylene (PCE). PCE is metabolized through both oxidative and glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathways. Toxicity criteria derived using both pathways are 23-fold more stringent than those calculated using only oxidative metabolism. While toxicokinetic modeling of PCE metabolism predicted very high variability through the GSH conjugation pathway, it is unclear if the range in estimates is due to human variability or uncertainty. Thus, the variation in the GSH conjugation pathway of PCE metabolism due to genetics, ethnicity, age, gender, diet, and pharmaceutical co-exposures is examined. Genetic polymorphisms were found at several loci including, GSTT1, GSTM1, CCBL1, AGXT2, NAT8, ACY3, MRP2, OAT1/3, FMO3, and CYP3A that code for enzymes/transporters in the GSH conjugation pathway. Genetic diversity in GSTT1, GSTM1, and CCBL1 between ethnic populations, as well as age, gender, diet, and pharmaceutical co-exposures influences toxic and mutagenic metabolites produced through this pathway. Given this diversity, large differences in PCE metabolism through the GSH conjugation pathway are expected. To be health protective for diverse ethnic populations and lifestyles, both the oxidative and GSH conjugation pathways need to be considered in developing PCE toxicity criteria. © 2017, © California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10807039.2017.1327799Halogenated SolventsTetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4
EnglishIn utero exposure to toxic air pollutants and risk of childhood autismVon Ehrenstein, O. S., Aralis, H., Cockburn, M., & Ritz, B. (2014). In utero exposure to toxic air pollutants and risk of childhood autism. Epidemiology, 25(6), 851-858. doi:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000150ToxicityEpidemiology2014Background: Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism, but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Here, we examine risks for autism in children related to in utero exposure to monitored ambient air toxics from urban emissions. Methods: Among the cohort of children bom in Los Angeles County, California, 1995-2006, those whose mothers resided during pregnancy in a 5-km buffer around air toxics monitoring stations were included (n = 148,722). To identify autism cases in this cohort, birth records were linked to records of children diagnosed with primary autistic disorder at the California Department of Developmental Services between 1998 and 2009 (n = 768). We calculated monthly average exposures during pregnancy for 24 air toxics selected based on suspected or known neurotoxicity or neurodevelopmental toxicity. Factor analysis helped us identify the correlational structure among air toxics, and we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism from logistic regression analyses. Results: Autism risks were increased per interquartile range increase in average concentrations during pregnancy of several correlated toxics mostly loading on 1 factor, including 1,3-butadiene (OR = 1.59 [95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.15]), meta/para-xylene (1.51 [1.26-1.82]), other aromatic solvents, lead (1.49 [1.23-1.81]), perchloroethylene (1.40 [1.09-1.80]), and formaldehyde (1.34 [1.17-1.52]), adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, insurance type, parity, child sex, and birth year. Conclusions: Risks for autism in children may increase following in utero exposure to ambient air toxics from urban traffic and industry emissions, as measured by community-based air-monitoring stations. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.http://pt.wkhealth.com/pt/re/lwwgateway/landingpage.htm;jsessionid=hjhV1Dv5q2cyDwNbY6RJ61vJP4R2Y6TCJJMNzKPJtMp2TM4S5JbY!579070261!181195629!8091!-1?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00001648-201411000-00010Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichlorobenzene, 95-50-1; 1,3 butadiene, 106-99-0, 25339-57-5; 1,4 dichlorobenzene, 106-46-7; acetaldehyde, 75-07-0; benzene, 71-43-2; chloroform, 67-66-3; chromium, 16065-83-1, 7440-47-3, 14092-98-9; copper, 15158-11-9, 7440-50-8; dichloromethane, 75-09-2; ethylbenzene, 100-41-4; formaldehyde, 50-00-0; lead, 7439-92-1, 13966-28-4; manganese, 16397-91-4, 7439-96-5; meta xylene, 108-38-3; molybdenum, 7439-98-7; nickel, 7440-02-0; ortho xylene, 95-47-6; para xylene, 106-42-3; selenium, 7782-49-2; tetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4; toluene, 108-88-3; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6; vanadium, 7440-62-2;
FrenchTrichloroethylene toxicity: Knowledge progress [Toxicité du trichloréthylène : Avancée des connaissances]M, L. N. (2013). Trichloroethylene toxicity: Knowledge progress. [Toxicité du trichloréthylène : Avancée des connaissances] Environnement, Risques Et Sante, 12(5), 391-392. doi:10.1684/ers.2013.0644ToxicityEnvironnement, Risques et Sante2013The United States Environmental Protection Agency published a thorough review of trichloroethylene in September 2011. It updates knowledge of four aspects of this chemical's toxicity: its metabolism, its carcinogenicity, its immunotoxicity, and fi nally its developmental cardiotoxicity.http://www.jle.com/fr/revues/ers/e-docs/breves_298288/article.phtmlHalogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishMolecular markers of trichloroethylene-induced toxicity in human kidney cellsLash, L. H., Putt, D. A., Hueni, S. E., & Horwitz, B. P. (2005). Molecular markers of trichloroethylene-induced toxicity in human kidney cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 206(2), 157-168. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2004.09.023ToxicityToxicology and Applied Pharmacology2005Difficulties in evaluation of trichloroethylene (TRI)-induced toxicity in humans and extrapolation of data from laboratory animals to humans are due to the existence of multiple target organs, multiple metabolic pathways, sex-, species-, and strain-dependent differences in both metabolism and susceptibility to toxicity, and the lack or minimal amount of human data for many target organs. The use of human tissue for mechanistic studies is thus distinctly advantageous. The kidneys are one target organ for TRI and metabolism by the glutathione (GSH) conjugation pathway is responsible for nephrotoxicity. The GSH conjugate is processed further to produce the cysteine conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (DCVC), which is the penultimate nephrotoxic species. Confluent, primary cultures of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells were used as the model system. Although cells in log-phase growth, which are undergoing more rapid DNA synthesis, would give lower LD50 values, confluent cells more closely mimic the in vivo proximal tubule. DCVC caused cellular necrosis only at relatively high doses (>100 μM) and long incubation times (>24 h). In contrast, both apoptosis and enhanced cellular proliferation occurred at relatively low doses (10–100 μM) and early incubation times (2–8 h). These responses were associated with prominent changes in expression of several proteins that regulate apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, Apaf-1, Caspase-9 cleavage, PARP cleavage) and cellular growth, differentiation and stress response (p53, Hsp27, NF-κB). Effects on p53 and Hsp27 implicate function of protein kinase C, the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and the cytoskeleton. The precise pattern of expression of these and other proteins can thus serve as molecular markers for TRI exposure and effect in human kidney.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X05000906?via%3DihubHalogenated SolventsTrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishHepatitis caused by occupational chronic exposure to trichloroethyleneAnagnostopoulos, G., Sakorafas, G. H., Grigoriadis, K., Margantinis, G., Kostopoulos, P., Tsiakos, S., & Arvanitidis, D. (2004). Hepatitis caused by occupational chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica, 67(4), 355-357. ToxicityActa Gastro-Enterologica Belgica2004Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent used in a variety of industries for more than 60 years. Several adverse events following acute or chronic exposure to trichloroethylene have been reported. However, TCE-induced hepatitis is very rare. We present the case of a 55-year old male who was presented with anorexia, fatigue and upper abdominal discomfort. Routine laboratory examination revealed marked elevation of liver enzyme values. All possible causes of hepatitis were ruled out. The patient has been working as a shoemaker, in a small room of a basement, with insufficient air-exchange; during the last 5 years he used daily a glue containing 1,1,1 trichloroethylene. The diagnosis of hepatitis was confirmed by liver biopsy. The offending agent was withdrawn. Three months later, he was "feeling well" and liver enzyme values had returned to normal. Six months after the initial biopsy, a second liver biopsy was performed and histology was markedly improved. Workers exposed to hazardous chemicals, such as trichloroethylene, must have periodic follow-up examinations. Good work practices are very important when using toxic substances. In patients whose initial diagnostic workout is negative for common causes of acute or chronic hepatitis, toxic causes should be considered, with emphasis on patient's job and working conditions.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15727081Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishMyoclonic encephalopathy after exposure to trichloroethyleneSanz, P., Nogué, S., Vilchez, D., Salvadó, E., Casal, A., & Logroscino, G. (2008). Myoclonic encephalopathy after exposure to trichloroethylene. Industrial Health, 46(6), 635-637. doi:10.2486/indhealth.46.635ToxicityIndustrial Health2008Trichloroethylene is a widely-used industrial solvent that is absorbed through the digestive or respiratory tracts or cutaneously. It has a selective tropism for the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and may cause death due to cardiac arrest or neurological sequelae.
We present the case of a 25-yr-old women who was exposed to trichloroethylene in the workplace for 18 months and who developed a disabling myoclonic encephalopathy. Non-toxicological causes were excluded. Although the exposure ceased, the disease progressed with thalamic and cerebellar involvement. The patient, who had only a partial response to symptomatic treatment, suffered severe limitations in the activities of daily living and was registered as permanently disabled due to a work-related disability.
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/46/6/46_6_635/_articleHalogenated SolventsTrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishNeuromotor effects of short-term and long-term exposures to trichloroethylene in workersMurata, K., Inoue, O., Akutsu, M., & Iwata, T. (2010). Neuromotor effects of short-term and long-term exposures to trichloroethylene in workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53(9), 915-921. doi:10.1002/ajim.20850ToxicityAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine2010Background: Health effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents at low levels are a major concern in industrialized countries. To assess the neuromotor impact of trichloroethylene objectively, static postural sway and hand tremor parameters, along with urinary trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) levels, were investigated in 57 workers without obvious neurological disorders and 60 control subjects. Methods: The workers had been occupationally exposed to trichloroethylene for 0.1-37 years. The cumulative exposure index (CEI) was calculated from their occupational history and total trichloro-compounds (TCOH+TCAA). Results: Median levels in the workers were 1.7 mg/L for TCOH and 2.5 mg/L for TCAA, and the maximum ambient trichloroethylene concentration was estimated to be <22 ppm from the previously reported equation using TCOH+TCAA. Sway parameters with eyes open and tremor intensity in dominant hand were significantly larger in the exposed workers than in the control subjects when adjusting for possible confounders. A significant dose-effect association was seen between two sway parameters and urinary TCOH level in the workers. Tremor intensities in non-dominant hand differed significantly among three groups of the workers divided according to the CEI. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trichloroethylene exposure, even at low levels of less than the short-term exposure limit by the ACGIH, can affect the neuromotor function of workers. The postural instability appears to result from recent exposure, and the increased tremor may occur due to short-term and long-term exposures. Hereafter, such objective measures, along with subjective symptoms, should be carefully used for the occupational exposure limit setting. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajim.20850Halogenated SolventsTrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishThe immune response in trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: A reviewZhang, J. -., Li, N., Wang, H., Shen, T., & Zhu, Q. -. (2017). The immune response in trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: A review. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 33(11), 876-883. doi:10.1177/0748233717731213ToxicityToxicology and Industrial Health2017Trichloroethylene (TCE) has been used for a variety of industrial and consumer cleaning purposes because of its ability to dissolve organic substances. The multisystem injuries include those of skin, liver, and kidney, which are defined as TCE hypersensitivity syndrome (THS). THS is a serious occupational health issue. However, the mechanism of immune dysfunction leading to organ injury is poorly understood. Many studies reveal that skin lesions and organ injury caused by TCE are consistent with type IV hypersensitivity, also called delayed hypersensitivity, mediated by T cells. However, many researchers found T cell-mediated type IV hypersensitivity could not account for the pathogenesis of THS fully. Humoral immunity, including immunoglobulins and complement activation, may also play a possible role in THS pathogenesis. This review will describe the history, current understanding, and future research directions of the mechanism of THS. © 2017, © The Author(s) 2017.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0748233717731213Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishBiodegradation of halogenated organic compoundsRasul Chaudhry, G., & Chapalamadugu, S. (1991). Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds. Microbiological Reviews, 55(1), 59-79+IIA.Antipollution systemsMicrobiological Reviews1991In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of alipathic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant compounds. Recent developments in designing recombinant microorganisms and hybrid metabolic pathways are discussed.n.a.Halogenated Solvents106-93-4 106-94-5 74-96-4 75-26-3 107-06-2 127-18-4 56-23-5 630-20-6 67-66-3 67-72-1 71-55-6 75-09-2 75-34-3 75-35-4 76-01-7 79-00-5 79-01-6 79-34-5 87-68-3 96-18-4 96-23-1
EnglishBiodegradation of low concentrations of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater is enhanced by phenolBaek, K., Wang, M., McKeever, R., Rieber, K., Park, C., & Nüsslein, K. (2014). Biodegradation of low concentrations of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater is enhanced by phenol. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 98(3), 1329-1338. doi:10.1007/s00253-013-4963-1Antipollution systemsApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology2014The lead scavenger 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB), a former additive to leaded gasoline, is a common groundwater contaminant, yet not much knowledge is available for its targeted bioremediation, especially under in situ conditions. The study site was an aviation gas spill site, which, although all hydrocarbons and most of the EDB were remediated in the mid-1990s, still exhibits low levels of EDB remaining in the groundwater (about 11 μg EDB/l). To evaluate the effect of phenol on biostimulation of low concentration of EDB, microcosms were established from an EDB-contaminated aquifer. After 300 days at environmentally relevant conditions (12∈±∈2 °C, static incubation), EDB was not significantly removed from unamended microcosms compared to the abiotic control. However, in treatments amended with phenol, up to 80 % of the initial EDB concentration had been degraded, while added phenol was removed completely. Microbial community composition in unamended and phenol-amended microcosms remained unchanged, and Polaromonas sp dominated both types of microcosms, but total bacterial abundance and numbers of the gene for phenol hydroxylase were higher in phenol-amended microcosms. Dehalogenase, an indicator suggesting targeted aerobic biodegradation of EDB, was not detected in either treatment. This finding suggests phenol hydroxylase, rather than a dehalogenation reaction, may be responsible for 1,2-dibromoethane oxidation under in situ conditions. In addition, biostimulation of EDB is possible through the addition of low levels of phenol in aerobic groundwater sites. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-013-4963-1Halogenated Solvents106-93-4
EnglishEnhancing aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater using ethane or propane and inorganic nutrientsHatzinger, P. B., Streger, S. H., & Begley, J. F. (2015). Enhancing aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dibromoethane in groundwater using ethane or propane and inorganic nutrients. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 172, 61-70. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.11.006Antipollution systemsJournal of Contaminant Hydrology20151,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide; EDB) is a probable human carcinogen that was previously used as both a soil fumigant and a scavenger in leaded gasoline. EDB has been observed to persist in soils and groundwater, particularly under oxic conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate options to enhance the aerobic degradation of EDB in groundwater, with a particular focus on possible in situ remediation strategies. Propane gas and ethane gas were observed to significantly stimulate the biodegradation of EDB in microcosms constructed with aquifer solids and groundwater from the FS-12 EDB plume at Joint Base Cape Cod (Cape Cod, MA), but only after inorganic nutrients were added. Ethene gas was also effective, but rates were appreciably slower than for ethane and propane. EDB was reduced to < 0.02 μg/L, the Massachusetts state Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), in microcosms that received ethane gas and inorganic nutrients. An enrichment culture (BE-3R) that grew on ethane or propane gas but not EDB was obtained from the site materials. The degradation of EDB by this culture was inhibited by acetylene gas, suggesting that degradation is catalyzed by a monooxygenase enzyme. The BE-3R culture was also observed to biodegrade 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), a compound commonly used in conjunction with EDB as a lead scavenger in gasoline. The data suggest that addition of ethane or propane gas with inorganic nutrients may be a viable option to enhance degradation of EDB in groundwater aquifers to below current state or federal MCL values. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169772214002149?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents106-93-4; 107-06-2;
EnglishElectrochemical degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) in a synthetic groundwater medium using stainless-steel electrodesBejankiwar, R., Lalman, J. A., Seth, R., & Biswas, N. (2005). Electrochemical degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) in a synthetic groundwater medium using stainless-steel electrodes. Water Research, 39(19), 4715-4724. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2005.09.012Antipollution systemsWater Research2005The electrochemical degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) was examined in a synthetic groundwater medium. An undivided electrolytic reactor constructed with 304L-type stainless-steel plate electrodes was employed in all experiments. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC) content during the electrolysis of DCA was experimentally examined. Stainless-steel plate electrodes were effective in degrading DCA under experimental conditions including varying initial concentrations, chloride concentrations, electrolyte conductivities and applied current densities. A half-life method demonstrated TOC removal followed zero-order kinetics under the experimental conditions examined. Chlorides concentration and applied current affected the TOC removal rates. An increase in current density increased the rate of TOC removal but caused a reduction in mineralization current efficiency. Increase in electrolyte conductivity had no effect on TOC removal rates but it decreased the energy consumption by reducing the cell voltage. Reaction temperature was shown to affect the TOC removal and was modeled by the Arrhenius equation. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135405005142?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishRemoval of organic matter from a variety of water matrices by UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 methodVilhunen, S., Vilve, M., Vepsäläinen, M., & Sillanpää, M. (2010). Removal of organic matter from a variety of water matrices by UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 method. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179(1-3), 776-782. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.070Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2010A re-circulated flow-through photoreactor was used to evaluate the ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and UV/H2O2 oxidation process in the purification of three different water matrices. Chemically coagulated and electrocoagulated surface water, groundwater contaminated with creosote wood preservative and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) containing washing water from the plant manufacturing tailor-made ion-exchange resins were used as sample waters. The organic constituents of creosote consist mainly of harmful polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) whereas 1,2-DCE is a toxic volatile organic compound (VOC). Besides analyzing the specific target compounds, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and measurement of change in UV absorbance at 254nm (UV254) were performed. Initial TOC, UV254 and pH varied significantly among treated waters. Initial H2O2 concentrations 0-200mg/l were used. The UV/H2O2 treatment was efficient in removing the hazardous target pollutants (PAHs and 1,2-DCE) and natural organic matter (NOM). In addition, high removal efficiency for TOC was achieved for coagulated waters and groundwater. Also, the efficiency of direct photolysis in UV254 removal was significant except in the treatment of 1,2-DCE containing washing water. Overall, UV254 and TOC removal rates were high, except in case of washing water, and the target pollutants were efficiently decomposed with the UV/H2O2 method. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389410003766?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishRemoval of volatile organic compounds from water by pervaporation using polyetherimide- polyethersulfone blend hollow fiber membranesZhao, W., & Shi, B. (2009). Removal of volatile organic compounds from water by pervaporation using polyetherimide- polyethersulfone blend hollow fiber membranes. Separation Science and Technology, 44(8), 1737-1752. doi:10.1080/01496390902775851Antipollution systemsSeparation Science and Technology2009Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, chlorobenzene and toluene from water solutions through polyetherimide (PEI)-polyethersulfone (PES) blend hollow fiber membranes was investigated by pervaporation (PV) in this work. The separation performances of the membranes were researched by varying the spinning conditions (such as coagulation temperature and air gap distance) for the preparation of the hollow fibers and the operation conditions (such as velocity, concentration, and temperature of feed liquids). For the PEI-PES blend hollow fiber membrane prepared when the air gap was 7 cm and the temperature of coagulation bath was 45 °C, it possessed high selectivity to the aqueous solutions containing 0.04 wt.% of VOCs at 20 C. The separation factors to 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, chlorobenzene and toluene were 7069, 5759, 3952, and 3205, respectively. It was found that the pervaporation performance of the blend hollow fiber membrane was strongly related to the molecular size of the VOCs. The order of the selectivities was 1,2-dichloroethane >trichloroethylene >chlorobenzene>toluene. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01496390902775851Halogenated Solvents107-06-2; 79-01-6
ChineseAnalysis on the degradation of organic pollutants in textile wastewater treatment process by GC-MSDai, H., Li, H., Zhou, G., He, Y., Zhou, W., Chen, W., & Shi, H. (2014). Analysis on the degradation of organic pollutants in textile wastewater treatment process by GC-MS. Journal of Zhejiang University, Science Edition, 41(1), 72-77. doi:10.3785/j.issn.1008-9497.2014.01.017Antipollution systemsJournal of Zhejiang University, Science Edition2014Textile wastewater is intractable industrial wastewater because of its big quantity and high concentration of complicated constituents. The research object was the wastewater from each unit of a sewage treatment plant in Zhejiang province, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the degradation process of organic pollutants in treatment processes. The results show that wastewater samples from the primary settling tank, the secondary sedimentation tank and the final settling tank respectively contained 50, 40 and 30 kinds of organic matters, including chloroform, 1, 2-dichloroethane, 1, 1, 2-trichloroethane and other eight kinds of organic matters which belong to environmental priority control contaminants.Acetophenone, chloroform, 2-chloro-2-methyl butane and other five kinds of organic matters are chosen as the characteristic pollutants in textile wastewater. The research has important significance on the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater.n.a.Halogenated Solvents107-06-2; 79-00-5
EnglishRemoval mechanisms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from effluent of common effluent treatment plant (CETP)Padalkar, A. V., & Kumar, R. (2018). Removal mechanisms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from effluent of common effluent treatment plant (CETP). Chemosphere, 199, 569-584. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.059Antipollution systemsChemosphere2018This study investigated the occurrence, removal and influence of plant-operating conditions on removal mechanisms of 83 VOCs in different treatment units of a CETP in Mumbai, treating industrial waste on primary and secondary level. A mass balance approach was used to predict VOC removal by volatilization, stripping, weir drop, adsorption, and biodegradation. Results indicate that ∼17% of VOCs were removed by stripping in equalization tank and ∼8% were removed by weir drop in primary clari-flocculator respectively. Biodegradation was the dominant mechanism in aeration tank and was relatively poor for hydrophobic compounds which were more vulnerable to removal by stripping. Stripping rates could be reduced by increasing the active biomass concentration and using fine pore diffusers to reduce the air/effluent ratio. Decrease in Henry's constant and compound concentration can shift the main removal mechanism from stripping to biodegradation. Results also show considerable agreement between measured (71.2%) and predicted (67.1%) total removal, especially in aeration tanks. Equalization tanks (actual, 20.5%, predicted, 16.9%), primary clari-flocculator (actual, 14.2%, predicted, 7.7%), and secondary clarifier units (actual, 29.5%, predicted, 16.8%) showed fairly acceptable differences in measured and predicted removal. The effect of other mechanisms on VOC removal need to be further explored owing to their major contribution to VOC removal. This study is the first attempt in understanding the mechanisms behind the removal of VOCs in each treatment unit, especially equalization tanks and clarifier units, which have been severely underestimated till date. © 2018 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653518300675?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,1,1 trichloroethane, 71-55-6; 1,1,2 trichloroethane, 79-00-5; 1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2; 1,2 dichloroethylene, 540-59-0; chloroform, 67-66-3; dichlorodifluoromethane, 75-71-8; dichloroethane, 1300-21-6; dichloromethane, 75-09-2;tetrachloroethane, 25322-20-7, 79-34-5; tetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6; trichlorofluoromethane, 75-69-4; vinylidene chloride, 25323-30-2, 75-35-4
EnglishEnhanced Degradation of TCE on a Superfund Site Using Endophyte-Assisted Poplar Tree PhytoremediationDoty, S. L., Freeman, J. L., Cohu, C. M., Burken, J. G., Firrincieli, A., Simon, A., . . . Blaylock, M. J. (2017). Enhanced degradation of TCE on a superfund site using endophyte-assisted poplar tree phytoremediation. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(17), 10050-10058. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b01504Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Science and Technology2017Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread environmental pollutant common in groundwater plumes associated with industrial manufacturing areas. We had previously isolated and characterized a natural bacterial endophyte, Enterobacter sp. strain PDN3, of poplar trees, that rapidly metabolizes TCE, releasing chloride ion. We now report findings from a successful three-year field trial of endophyte-assisted phytoremediation on the Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman Superfund Study Area TCE plume in the Silicon Valley of California. The inoculated poplar trees exhibited increased growth and reduced TCE phytotoxic effects with a 32% increase in trunk diameter compared to mock-inoculated control poplar trees. The inoculated trees excreted 50% more chloride ion into the rhizosphere, indicative of increased TCE metabolism in planta. Data from tree core analysis of the tree tissues provided further supporting evidence of the enhanced rate of degradation of the chlorinated solvents in the inoculated trees. Test well groundwater analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in concentration of TCE and its derivatives from the tree-associated groundwater plume. The concentration of TCE decreased from 300 μg/L upstream of the planted area to less than 5 μg/L downstream of the planted area. TCE derivatives were similarly removed with cis-1,2-dichloroethene decreasing from 160 μg/L to less than 5 μg/L and trans-1,2-dichloroethene decreasing from 3.1 μg/L to less than 0.5 μg/L downstream of the planted trees. 1,1-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride both decreased from 6.8 and 0.77 μg/L, respectively, to below the reporting limit of 0.5 μg/L providing strong evidence of the ability of the endophytic inoculated trees to effectively remove TCE from affected groundwater. The combination of native pollutant-degrading endophytic bacteria and fast-growing poplar tree systems offers a readily deployable, cost-effective approach for the degradation of TCE, and may help mitigate potential transfer up the food chain, volatilization to the atmosphere, as well as direct phytotoxic impacts to plants used in this type of phytoremediation. © 2017 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.7b01504Halogenated Solvents1,1,2 trichloro 1,2,2 trifluoroethane, 76-13-1; 1,2 dichloroethylene, 540-59-0; chloroform, 67-66-3; dichloroethane, 1300-21-6; tetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4; trichloroethylene, 79-01-6; vinyl chloride, 75-01-4; vinylidene chloride, 25323-30-2, 75-35-4
EnglishDecomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane over CeO2 modified USY zeolite catalysts: Effect of acidity and redox property on the catalytic behaviorHuang, Q., Xue, X., & Zhou, R. (2010). Decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane over CeO2 modified USY zeolite catalysts: Effect of acidity and redox property on the catalytic behavior. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183(1-3), 694-700. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.07.081Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2010CeO2 modified ultrastable Y zeolite (CeO2-USY) catalysts were prepared and were used as the catalysts for the decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The catalytic behavior of these catalysts was evaluated by micro-reaction and temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. The results reveal that CeO2-USY catalysts exhibit good catalytic activity for DCE decomposition and high selectivity to the formation of CO2 and HCl. Both acidity and redox property play important roles in the DCE decomposition, and the synergy between CeO2 species and USY zeolite shows an enhancement in the catalytic activity for DCE decomposition. CeO2-USY (1:8) with high dispersion of CeO2 species and a much more suitable combination of acidity and redox property exhibits the best catalytic activity. © 2010.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389410009660?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishRough-interval-based multicriteria decision analysis for remediation of 1,1-dichloroethane contaminated groundwaterRen, L., He, L., Lu, H., & Li, J. (2017). Rough-interval-based multicriteria decision analysis for remediation of 1,1-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater. Chemosphere, 168, 244-253. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.042Antipollution systemsChemosphere2017A rough-interval-based multicriteria decision analysis method (RI-MCDA) is developed for supporting the selection of remediation strategies for 1,1-dichloroethane contaminated sites. The concept of ‘‘rough interval’’ is introduced in the design framework to represent dual-uncertain parameters. Three rough-interval scenarios generated through pair-wise combining the values under three confidence levels (i.e. 68.3%, 95.4% and 99.7%) and one deterministic scenario adopted crisp numbers for parameters are introduced into the framework. The proposed method is then applied to a contaminated site in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China. Fifty remediation alternatives under four duration options (i.e. 5, 10, 15, and 20 years) and ten criteria, including daily total pumping rate, total cost and rough-interval risk information in light of uncertainty parameter (e.g. slope factor), are taken into consideration to compare different alternatives through RI-MCDA. Results indicated that the most desirable remediation strategy lied in A25 for the 5-year, A10 for the 10-year, A15 for the 15-year, and A11 for the 20-year remediation. Compared to the traditional MCDA, the proposed RI-MCDA shows the uniqueness in addressing the interaction between dual intervals of highly uncertain parameters, as well as their joint impact on the decision results, which reduces the subjectivity as much as possible. © 2016 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516314254?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventschloroethane, 75-00-3;
EnglishCometabolic degradation and inhibition kinetics of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in suspended-growth nitrifying systemsAlpaslan Kocamemi, B., & Çeçen, F. (2010). Cometabolic degradation and inhibition kinetics of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in suspended-growth nitrifying systems. Environmental Technology, 31(3), 295-305. doi:10.1080/09593330903470677Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Technology2010Cometabolic degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and its inhibitory impact on nitrification were investigated by the use of a mixed suspended-growth culture enriched for nitrifiers. 1,2-DCA was found to be cometabolically degradable by the nitrifier culture. This degradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial 1,2-DCA level. The first-order 1,2-DCA degradation rate constants ranged between 0.42 and 0.87 L (g VSS)-1 h-1. Increase in NH4-N utilization favoured cometabolic degradation of 1,2-DCA. The amount of 1,2-DCA degraded per unit mass of NH4-N strongly correlated with initial NH4-N and 1,2-DCA concentrations, ranging between 50 mg L-1 and 200 mg L -1 and 1600 μg L-1 and 100,000 μg L-1, respectively. The presence of 1,2-DCA caused inhibition of oxygen uptake and NH4-N utilization. In spite of the adverse effect of 1,2-DCA on the nitrifying biomass, the system had a high capacity for cometabolic removal of this compound even at inhibitory concentrations. 1,2-DCA had mainly mixed inhibitor characteristics, but at low concentrations (<25,000 μg/L) it acted rather as a competitive inhibitor. The inhibition constants belonging to 1,2-DCA, Kic (the dissociation constant of the enzyme-inhibitory compound complex) and Kiu (the dissociation constant of the enzyme-substrate-inhibitory compound complex) were determined to be 6000-8000 μg L-1 and 188,000-200,000 μg L-1, respectively.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09593330903470677Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishDegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane by microbial communities from river sediment at various redox conditionsvan der Zaan, B., de Weert, J., Rijnaarts, H., de Vos, W. M., Smidt, H., & Gerritse, J. (2009). Degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane by microbial communities from river sediment at various redox conditions. Water Research, 43(13), 3207-3216. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.04.042Antipollution systemsWater Research2009Insight into the pathways of biodegradation and external factors controlling their activity is essential in adequate environmental risk assessment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution. This study focuses on biodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in microcosms containing sediment sourced from the European rivers Ebro, Elbe and Danube. Biodegradation was studied under different redox conditions. Reductive dechlorination of 1,2-DCA was observed with Ebro and Danube sediment with chloroethane, or ethene, respectively, as the major dechlorination products. Different reductively dehalogenating micro-organisms (Dehalococcoides spp., Dehalobacter spp., Desulfitobacterium spp. and Sulfurospirillum spp.) were detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted PCR and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that only 2-5 bacterial orders were represented in the microcosms. With Ebro and Danube sediment, indications for anaerobic oxidation of 1,2-DCA were obtained under denitrifying or iron-reducing conditions. No biodegradation of 1,2-DCA was observed in microcosms with Ebro sediment under the different tested redox conditions. This research shows that 1,2-DCA biodegradation capacity was present in different river sediments, but not in the water phase of the river systems and that biodegradation potential with associated microbial communities in river sediments varies with the geochemical properties of the sediments. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004313540900284X?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2; chloroethane, 75-00-3; ethylene dichloride, 107-06-2
EnglishBioelectrochemically-assisted reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane by a Dehalococcoides-enriched microbial cultureLeitão, P., Rossetti, S., Nouws, H. P. A., Danko, A. S., Majone, M., & Aulenta, F. (2015). Bioelectrochemically-assisted reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane by a dehalococcoides-enriched microbial culture. Bioresource Technology, 195, 78-82. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.027Antipollution systemsBioresource Technology2015The aim of this study was to verify the possibility to use a polarized graphite electrode as an electron donor for the reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane, an ubiquitous groundwater contaminant. The rate of 1,2-DCA dechlorination almost linearly increased by decreasing the set cathode potential over a broad range of set cathode potentials (i.e., from -300 mV to -900 mV vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). This process was primarily dependent on electrolytic H2 generation. On the other hand, reductive dechlorination proceeded (although quite slowly) with a very high Coulombic efficiency (near 70%) at a set cathode potential of -300 mV, where no H2 production occurred. Under this condition, reductive dechlorination was likely driven by direct electron uptake from the surface of the polarized electrode. Taken as a whole, this study further extends the range of chlorinated contaminants which can be treated with bioelectrochemical systems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852415008135?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishBioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater: Microcosm and microbial diversity studiesWang, S. Y., Kuo, Y. C., Huang, Y. Z., Huang, C. W., & Kao, C. M. (2015). Bioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater: Microcosm and microbial diversity studies. Environmental Pollution, 203, 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.03.042Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Pollution2015In this study, the effectiveness of bioremediating 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-contaminated groundwater under different oxidation-reduction processes was evaluated. Microcosms were constructed using indigenous bacteria and activated sludge as the inocula and cane molasses and a slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) as the primary substrates. Complete DCA removal was obtained within 30 days under aerobic and reductive dechlorinating conditions. In anaerobic microcosms with sludge and substrate addition, chloroethane, vinyl chloride, and ethene were produced. The microbial communities and DCA-degrading bacteria in microcosms were characterized by 16S rRNA-based denatured-gradient-gel electrophoresis profiling and nucleotide sequence analyses. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate the variations in Dehalococcoides spp. and Desulfitobacterium spp. Increase in Desulfitobacterium spp. indicates that the growth of Desulfitobacterium might be induced by DCA. Results indicate that DCA could be used as the primary substrate under aerobic conditions. The increased ethene concentrations imply that dihaloelimination was the dominate mechanism for DCA biodegradation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115001724?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2; chloroethane, 75-00-3
English1,2-dichloroethane removal by Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk and Pseudomonas putida BCC 23535Saiyood, S., Inthorn, D., Vangnai, A., & Thiravetyan, P. (2016). 1,2-dichloroethane removal by bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) lamk and pseudomonas putida BCC 23535. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 16(5), 1313-1319. doi:10.2166/ws.2016.060Antipollution systemsWater Science and Technology: Water Supply2016The purpose of this work was to investigate the ability of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk and Pseudomonas putida BCC 23535 to remove 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in contaminated water under hydroponic conditions. B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk is a representative mangrove plant that can tolerate high levels of 1,2-DCA with a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 34.67 mM. A concentration of 10 mM 1,2-DCA was chosen in the present study because it had no adverse effect on the plant. Using B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk alone could completely remove 1,2-DCA over four cycles of 1,2-DCA exposure. P. putida BCC 23535 alone could also remove 1,2-DCA but the efficiency was lower than B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk. The combination of B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk and P. putida BCC 23535 could completely remove 1,2-DCA within 6 days, which was more effective than the individual plants alone. P. putida BCC 23535 can be applied in 1,2-DCA contaminated water in groundwater which B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk can be used in above ground contaminated environments. Therefore, this study suggests that both B. gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk and P. putida BCC 23535 are alternative ways to treat 1,2-DCA in contaminated environments. © IWA Publishing 2016.

http://ws.iwaponline.com/content/16/5/1313Halogenated Solvents1,2 dichloroethane, 107-06-2
EnglishA survey of extraction solvents in the forensic analysis of textile dyesGroves, E., Palenik, C. S., & Palenik, S. (2016). A survey of extraction solvents in the forensic analysis of textile dyes. Forensic Science International, 268, 139-144. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.043Antipollution systemsForensic Science International2016The characterization and identification of dyes in fibers can be used to provide investigative leads and strengthen associations between known and questioned items of evidence. The isolation of a dye from its matrix (e.g., a textile fiber) permits detailed characterization, comparison and, in some cases, identification using methods such as thin layer chromatography in conjunction with infrared and Raman spectroscopy. A survey of dye extraction publications reveals that pyridine:water (4:3) is among the most commonly cited extraction solvent across a range of fiber and dye chemistries. Here, the efficacy of this solvent system has been evaluated for the extraction of dyes from 172 commercially prevalent North American textile dyes. The evaluated population represents seven dye application classes, 18 chemical classes, and spans nine types of commercial textile fibers. The results of this survey indicate that ∼82% of the dyestuffs studied are extractable using this solvent system. The results presented here summarize the extraction efficacy by class and fiber type and illustrate that this solvent system is applicable to a wider variety of classes and fibers than previously indicated in the literature. While there is no universal solvent for fiber extraction, these results demonstrate that pyridine:water represents an excellent first step for extracting unknown dyes from questioned fibers in forensic casework.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037907381630130X?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventschlorobenzene, 108-90-7; chloroform, 67-66-3
EnglishRemoval of dichloromethane from ground and wastewater: A reviewShestakova, M., & Sillanpää, M. (2013). Removal of dichloromethane from ground and wastewater: A review. Chemosphere, 93(7), 1258-1267. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.022Antipollution systemsChemosphere2013Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic volatile compound which is found in the ground waters and wastewaters of the pharmaceutical, chemical, textile, metal-working and petroleum industries. DCM inhibits the growth of aquatic organisms, induces cancer in animals and is potentially carcinogenic for humans. This article aims to review existing water treatments for DCM removal, focusing on recent technological advances. Air stripping, adsorption and pervaporation were found to be effective in separating DCM from water with a process efficiency of about 99%, 90% and 80% respectively. Electrocatalysis over Cu-impregnated carbon fiber electrode, photo irradiation over TiO2 and photo-Fenton process led to the complete decomposition of DCM. Aerobic and anaerobic water treatment achieved 99% and 95% removal of DCM respectively. The maximum efficiencies observed for acoustic cavitation, radiolysis and catalytic degradation of CH2Cl2 were 90%, 92% and 99% respectively. Ozonation and persulfate oxidation showed lower DCM degradation efficiencies, not exceeding 20%. Further combination of different water treatment methods will further increase DCM degradation efficiency. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653513010060?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventsdichloromethane, 75-09-2
EnglishBacterial community dynamics in dichloromethane-contaminated groundwater undergoing natural attenuationWright, J., Kirchner, V., Bernard, W., Ulrich, N., McLimans, C., Campa, M. F., . . . Lamendella, R. (2017). Bacterial community dynamics in dichloromethane-contaminated groundwater undergoing natural attenuation. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8(NOV) doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.02300Antipollution systemsFrontiers in Microbiology2017The uncontrolled release of the industrial solvent methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane (DCM), has resulted in widespread groundwater contamination in the USA. Here we investigate the role of groundwater bacterial communities in the natural attenuation of DCM at an undisclosed manufacturing site in New Jersey. This study investigates the bacterial community structure of groundwater samples differentially contaminated with DCM to better understand the biodegradation potential of these autochthonous bacterial communities. Bacterial community analysis was completed using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of groundwater samples (n = 26) with DCM contamination ranging from 0.89 to 9,800,000 μg/L. Significant DCM concentration-driven shifts in overall bacterial community structure were identified between samples, including an increase in the abundance of Firmicutes within the most contaminated samples. Across all samples, a total of 6,134 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, with 16 taxa having strong correlations with increased DCM concentration. Putative DCM degraders such as Pseudomonas, Dehalobacterium and Desulfovibrio were present within groundwater across all levels of DCM contamination. Interestingly, each of these taxa dominated specific DCM contamination ranges respectively. Potential DCM degrading lineages yet to be cited specifically as a DCM degrading organisms, such as the Desulfosporosinus, thrived within the most heavily contaminated groundwater samples. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial taxa with DCM-degrading potential were present at the study site. Our 16S rRNA gene survey serves as the first in situ bacterial community assessment of contaminated groundwater harboring DCM concentrations ranging over seven orders of magnitude. Diversity analyses revealed known as well as potentially novel DCM degrading taxa within defined DCM concentration ranges, indicating niche-specific responses of these autochthonous populations. Altogether, our findings suggest that monitored natural attenuation is an appropriate remediation strategy for DCM contamination, and that high-throughput sequencing technologies are a robust method for assessing the potential role of biodegrading bacterial assemblages in the apparent reduction of DCM concentrations in environmental scenarios. © 2017 Wright, Kirchner, Bernard, Ulrich, McLimans, Campa, Hazen, Macbeth, Marabello, McDermott, Mackelprang, Roth and Lamendella.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02300/fullHalogenated Solventsdichloromethane, 75-09-2
EnglishRemoval and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during electrocoagulation treatment of an industrial wastewaterGong, C., Shen, G., Huang, H., He, P., Zhang, Z., & Ma, B. (2017). Removal and transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during electrocoagulation treatment of an industrial wastewater. Chemosphere, 168, 58-64. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.044Antipollution systemsChemosphere2017Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of water pollutants because of their known ecological and human toxicity. Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising technology for mitigating industrial wastewater pollution, but the removal and transformation of PAHs during EC treatment has not yet been understood. Therefore, a paper-making wastewater effluent (PMWW) was employed in this study to investigate the relationship between PAHs’ removal and transformation during EC treatment. The results show that 86% of PAHs were effectively removed not only by the electro-oxidation reactions, but also by adsorption onto Fe hydroxide flocs. The removal and transformation of PAHs were related to the number of rings in their structures. Some PAHs composed of two aromatic rings (e.g., naphthaline and dimethylnaphthalene) were produced from humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like organics in PMWW, while PAHs with three to four rings were degraded, thus being removed efficiently. Therefore, PAH transformation during EC treatment exerted double-sided effects on the removal of PAHs; the net effect appeared to be positive. Overall, this study revealed the existence and importance of PAH transformation during EC treatment and provided useful guidance for pulp and paper mills to improve the design and operation of wastewater treatment facilities. © 2016 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653516314278?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventshexachlorobutadiene, 87-68-3
EnglishSonochemical degradation of perchloroethyleneGonzález-García, J., Sáez, V., Esclapez, M. D., Bonete, P., Walton, D. J., Rehorek, A., & Louisnard, O. (2010). Sonochemical degradation of perchloroethylene. Paper presented at the Physics Procedia, , 3(1) 981-986. doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2010.01.126 Antipollution systemsPhysics Procedia2010An extensive study of the sonochemical degradation of the perchloroethylene (PCE) in water has been carried out. The influence of the initial concentration, ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the speciation and degradation efficiency has been analyzed. Required preliminary work has been carried out analysing the analytical procedures, partition of the organic chemicals due to the volatility (Henry constant) and other experimental aspects to configure the experiment series. The sonochemical degradation runs by a radical mechanism which yields a very wide range of chlorinated compounds in very low concentrations. Special attention has been paid to the mass balance comparing the results from several analytical techniques. As a conclusion, the sonochemical degradation by itself is not an efficient treatment to diminish the toxicity of the waste water. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389210001276?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventsperchloroethylene 127-18-4
EnglishImpacts of co-solvent flushing on microbial populations capable of degrading trichloroethyleneRamakrishnan, V., Ogram, A. V., & Lindner, A. S. (2005). Impacts of co-solvent flushing on microbial populations capable of degrading trichloroethylene. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(1), 55-61. doi:10.1289/ehp.6937Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Health Perspectives2005With increased application of co-solvent flushing technologies for removal of nonaqueous phase liquids from groundwater aquifers, concern over the effects of the solvent on native microorganisms and their ability to degrade residual contaminant has also arisen. This study assessed the impact of ethanol flushing on the numbers and activity potentials of trichloroethylene (TCE)-degrading microbial populations present in aquifer soils taken immediately after and 2 years after ethanol flushing of a former dry cleaners site. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed soluble methane monooxygenase genes in methanotrophic enrichments, and 16S rRNA analysis identified Methylocystis parvus with 98% similarity, further indicating the presence of a type II methanotroph. Dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes in sulfate-reducing enrichments prepared were also observed. Ethanol flushing was simulated in columns packed with uncontaminated soils from the dry cleaners site that were dosed with TCE at concentrations observed in the field; after flushing, the columns were subjected to a continuous flow of 500 pore volumes of groundwater per week. Total acridine orange direct cell counts of the flushed and nonflushed soils decreased over the 15-week testing period, but after 5 weeks, the flushed soils maintained higher cell counts than the nonflushed soils. Inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate reduction was observed in all column soils, as was increasing removal of total methane by soils incubated under methanotrophic conditions. These results showed that impacts of ethanol were not as severe as anticipated and imply that ethanol may mitigate the toxicity of TCE to the microorganisms.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1253710/Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishPerchloroethylene (PCE) oxidation by percarbonate in Fe2+-catalyzed aqueous solution: PCE performance and its removal mechanismMiao, Z., Gu, X., Lu, S., Zang, X., Wu, X., Xu, M., . . . Fu, G. Y. (2015). Perchloroethylene (PCE) oxidation by percarbonate in Fe2+-catalyzed aqueous solution: PCE performance and its removal mechanism. Chemosphere, 119, 1120-1125. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.065Antipollution systemsChemosphere2015The performance of Fe2+-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) stimulating the oxidation of perchloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater remediation was investigated. The experimental results showed that PCE could be completely oxidized in 5min at 20°C with a Fe2+/SPC/PCE molar ratio of 8/8/1, indicating the effectiveness of Fe2+-catalyzed SPC oxidation for PCE degradation. Fe2+-catalyzed SPC oxidation was suitable for the nearly neutral pH condition, which was superior to the conventional Fenton oxidation in acidic condition. In addition, the investigations by using hydroxyl radical scavengers and free radical probe compounds elucidated that PCE was degraded mainly by hydroxyl radical (HO) oxidation in Fe2+/SPC system. In conclusion, Fe2+-catalyzed SPC oxidation is a highly promising technique for PCE-contaminated groundwater remediation, but more complex constituents in groundwater should be carefully considered for its practical application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653514011412?via%3DihubHalogenated Solvents tetrachloroethylene, 127-18-4
EnglishOxidative degradation and toxicity reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water using TiO2/solar light: Comparative study of TiO2 slurry and immobilized systemsCho, I. -., Park, J. -., & Kim, Y. -. (2005). Oxidative degradation and toxicity reduction of trichloroethylene (TCE) in water using TiO2/solar light: Comparative study of TiO2 slurry and immobilized systems. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 40(5), 1033-1044. doi:10.1081/ESE-200056155Antipollution systemsJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering2005A solar-driven, photocatalyzed degradation system using TiO2 slurry and immobilized systems was constructed and applied to the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water using TiO2 with solar light. The experiments were carried out under constant weather conditions on a sunny day. Solar photocatalytic treatment efficiency of the solar light/TiO 2 slurry system was compared with that of the solar light/TiO 2 immobilized system. The operation of the solar light/TiO 2 slurry and immobilized systems showed 100% (TiO2 slurry system), 80% (TiO2 immobilized system) degradation of the TCE after 6 h, with a chloride production yield of approximately 89% (TiO2 slurry system), 72% (TiO2 immobilized system). The oxidants such as H2O2 and S2O8 2- in the TiO2 slurry and immobilized systems increased TCE degradation rate by suppressing the electron/hole recombination process. The degradation rate and relative toxicity reduction of TCE followed the order of solar light/TiO 2 slurry + S2O8 2- > solar light/TiO2 slurry + H2O2 > solar light/TiO2 immobilized + S2O8 2- > solar light/TiO2 slurry > solar light/TiO2 immobilized + H2O2 > solar light/TiO2 immobilized. Finally, following to the toxicity result, the acute toxicity was reduced by below toxicity endpoint (EC50 concentration) following the treatment. It means that many of the metabolites of TCE reduction are less toxic to Vibrio fischeri than the parent compound. Based on these results, TCE can be efficiently and safely treated in a solar-driven, photocatalyzed degradation system.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/ESE-200056155Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6;
EnglishDestruction of Gas-Phase Trichloroethylene in a Modified Fuel CellJu, X., Hecht, M., Galhotra, R. A., Ela, W. P., Betterton, E. A., Arnold, R. G., & Sáez, A. E. (2006). Destruction of gas-phase trichloroethylene in a modified fuel cell. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(2), 612-617. doi:10.1021/es0514895Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Science and Technology2006A conventional fuel cell was used as a catalytic reactor to treat soil vapor extraction (SVE) gases contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE). The SVE gases are fed to the cathode side of the fuel cell, where TCE is reduced to ethane and hydrochloric acid. The results obtained suggest that TCE reduction occurs by a catalytic reaction with hydrogen that is re-formed on the cathode's surface beyond a certain applied cell potential. Substantial conversion of TCE is obtained, even when competing oxygen reduction occurs in the cathode. The process has been modeled successfully by conceptualizing the flow passage in the fuel cell as a plug flow reactor. © 2006 American Chemical Society.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0514895Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6;
EnglishDegradation of trichloroethylene by hydrodechlorination using formic acid as hydrogen source over supported Pd catalystsYu, X., Wu, T., Yang, X. -., Xu, J., Auzam, J., Semiat, R., & Han, Y. -. (2016). Degradation of trichloroethylene by hydrodechlorination using formic acid as hydrogen source over supported pd catalysts. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 305, 178-189. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.11.025Antipollution systemsJournal of Hazardous Materials2016An advanced method for the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) over Pd/MCM-41 catalysts through a hydrogen-transfer was investigated. Formic acid (FA) was used instead of gaseous H2 as the hydrogen resource. As a model H-carrier compound, FA has proven to yield less by-products and second-hand pollution during the reaction. Several factors have been studied, including: the property of catalyst supports, Pd loading and size, temperature, initial concentrations of FA and TCE (potential impact on the reaction rates of TCE degradation), and FA decomposition. The intrinsic kinetics for TCE degradation were measured, while the apparent activation energies and the reaction orders with respect to TCE and FA were calculated through power law models. On the basis of kinetics, we assumed a plausible reaction pathway for TCE degradation in which the catalytic degradation of TCE is most likely the rate-determining step for this reaction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304389415302259?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishPolymer material-supported titania nanofibers with different polyvinylpyrrolidone to TiO2 ratios for degradation of vaporous trichloroethyleneChun, H. -., & Jo, W. -. (2014). Polymer material-supported titania nanofibers with different polyvinylpyrrolidone to TiO2 ratios for degradation of vaporous trichloroethylene. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(3), 1010-1015. doi:10.1016/j.jiec.2013.06.036Antipollution systemsJournal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry2014Polymer-supported TiO2 nanofibers with different polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-to-TiO2 (PT) ratios were synthesized and their photocatalytic efficiencies were examined for the decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE). The spectral results of the TiO2 nanofibers confirmed the presence of TiO2 crystal phases in the nanofibers. The TiO2 nanofiber with the highest PT ratio of 1:1.3 showed the highest TCE decomposition (94%), followed by TiO2 nanofibers with PT ratios of 1:0.7 (91%), 1:0.35 (88%), and 1:0.1 (84%). The conditions of low input concentration and humidity were suggested for the optimal decomposition of TCE. Consequently, the TiO2 nanofiber webs could be used effectively to decompose TCE. © 2013 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1226086X13002803?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishEnhanced dechlorination of trichloroethylene by membrane‐supported Pd‐coated iron nanoparticles
Wu, L., & Ritchie, S. M. C. (2008). Enhanced dechlorination of trichloroethylene by membrane-supported pd-coated iron nanoparticles. Environmental Progress, 27(2), 218-224. doi:10.1002/ep.10277Antipollution systemsEnvironmental Progress2008In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) supported iron and Pd/Fe nanoparticles were used for dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. Solution and microemulsion methods were used to synthesize the iron nanoparticles. Pd/Fe bimetallic particles were prepared by postcoating Pd on the prepared iron nanoparticles. These materials were then dispersed in CA solution, which was used to prepare the membranesupported nanoparticles. TEM imaging confirmed that the iron and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were ∼ 10 nm in diameter. The results of dechlorination studies showed that the surface composition of the Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles (microemulsion method) significantly affected the observed reduction rate constant. In addition, the rate constant was a nonlinear function of metal loading and initial TCE concentration. A comparative study for the Pd/Fe (Pd 1.9 wt %) nanoparticles from solution and microemulsion methods showed that the nanoparticles formed by the latter method gave superior performance for the dechlorination of TCE. © 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ep.10277Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishRemediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethylene using groundwater extraction and effects of natural attenuationEgusa, N., Hirata, T., Yoshioka, M., & Nakasugi, O. (2005). Remediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethylene using groundwater extraction and effects of natural attenuation. Paper presented at the IAHS-AISH Publication, (297) 433-438.Antipollution systemsIAHS-AISH Publication2005This paper evaluates the effects of the pump-and-treat technique and natural attenuation to treat trichloroethylene (TCE) at a contaminated site. Groundwater contamination at this site was discovered about 20 years ago. The cause of the contamination was the leakage of TCE from an underground pipeline at a factory. At the factory, soil removal and pump-and-treat techniques were conducted to remediate the unsaturated zone and the aquifer, respectively. Consequently, the pump-and-treat method which operated for 14 years succeeded in the decontamination of groundwater. In the meantime, dichloroethylene (DCE) was detected in the aquifer, and the estimated first-order rate constants for the degradation of TCE and DCE were 1.5-15.0 × 10-3 day -1 and 3.1-31.0 × 10-3 day-1, respectively. This result implicitly indicates that DCE degraded faster than TCE, and the anaerobic oxidation of DCE contributed to the faster degradation of DCE than TCE in this aquifern.a.Halogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishSurfactant-enhanced PEG-4000-NZVI for remediating trichloroethylene-contaminated soilTian, H., Liang, Y., Zhu, T., Zeng, X., & Sun, Y. (2018). Surfactant-enhanced PEG-4000-NZVI for remediating trichloroethylene-contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 195, 585-593. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.070Antipollution systemsChemosphere2018In this study a NZVI was prepared by the liquid phase reduction method. The modified NZVI obtained was characterized by BET, TEM and XRD. The results showed that the iron in the PEG-4000 modified material is mainly zero-valent iron with a stable crystal structure. It has a uniform particle size, ranging from 20 to 80 nm, and a larger specific surface area than CTAB modified NZVI, SDS modified NZVI and commercial zero-valent iron. The two surfactants CTAB and SDS are also selected as solubilizers, the results showed that the two selected surfactants obviously solubilize trichloroethylene in soil. Compared with commercial zero-valent iron, PEG-4000 modified NZVI is better removed trichloroethylene from soil; Also, the optimal operational parameters were obtained. When the experimental conditions were: PEG-4000 modified NZVI dosage 1.0 g/L, CTAB/SDS concentration equal to the CMC, SDS concentration was 2.0 × CMC, CTAB was concentration 1.0 × CMC and the vibration speed 150 r/min, the removal efficiency of trichloroethylene in a soil-water system reached 100% after 4 h. Both NZVI combined with CTAB and NZVI combined with SDS followed fitted first order reaction kinetics during the removal of trichloroethylene and their reaction rate constant k was 0.6869 mg/(L·h) and 0.5659 mg/(L·h), respectively. According to the chloride ion detection test, the trichloroethylene degradation is mainly due to reductive dechlorination. © 2017 Elsevier Ltdhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653517320404?via%3DihubHalogenated Solventstrichloroethylene, 79-01-6
EnglishA study on the substitution of trichloroethylene as a spot remover in the textile industryMirza, T., Gérin, M., Bégin, D., & Drolet, D. (2000). A study on the substitution of trichloroethylene as a spot remover in the textile industry. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 61(3), 431-438.Substitutive SubstancesAmerican Industrial Hygiene Association Journal2000Since the ban on 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the textile industry has been using trichloroethylene (TCE) as a spot remover to clean oil and grease stains from fabrics at inspection stations. TCE is a toxic substance recently classified as a probable human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to use a systematic substitution procedure to replace TCE with a less hazardous option for spot removing in a textile company. After documenting the problem and understanding the processes involved, numerous sources of information were searched to identify the greatest number of plausible solutions. Then criteria were established to help consider only the options that seemed technically acceptable. Five options were retained: 1-bromopropane, a petroleum-based solvent, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon-based solvent, an appliance that uses hot steam, and the elimination of the oil and grease spots at the source. The latter option, which had been partially implemented by the textile company, was not considered in this study. After being tested in the workplace and evaluated on their technical plausibility and impact on health, safety, and environment, the remaining four options were not considered as suitable replacements for TCE. Thus, local ventilation with the implementation of further measures for the reduction/elimination of stains at the source were recommended to lower TCE exposure for workers.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15298660008984555Halogenated Solvents1717-00-6; 106-94-5; 79-01-6;
EnglishCleaner (sustainable) production in textile wet processingAlkaya, E., Bögürcü, M., Ulutaş, F., & Demirer, G. N. (2012). Cleaner (sustainable) production in textile wet processing. Non-conventional textile waste water treatment (pp. 205-229) Substitutive SubstancesNon-Conventional Textile Waste Water Treatment2012The textile industry includes a variety of processes ranging from the manufacture of synthetic fibers and fabric production to retail sales. The wet-processing operations, namely preparation, dyeing and finishing of textile products which are used to give the desired characteristics to the yarn or fabric, require the use of several chemical baths. They consume vast amount of energy, chemicals and water. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mainly arise from textiles finishing, drying processes, and solvent use. VOC concentrations vary from 10 mg m-3 for the thermosol process to 350 mg carbon m-3 for drying and condensation process. Process wastewater is a major source of pollutants. It is typically alkaline and has high BOD5 (700 to 2,000 mg l-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (approximately 2 to 5 times the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) level), solids, oil and possibly toxic organics including phenols (from dyeing and finishing) and halogenated organics (from processes such as bleaching). Dye wastewaters are frequently highly colored and may contain heavy metals such as copper and chromium. Wool processing may release bacteria and other pathogens. Pesticides are sometimes used for the preservation of natural fibers and these are transferred to wastewaters during washing and scouring operations. Pesticides are also used for moth proofing, brominated flame retardants for synthetic fabrics, and isocyanates for lamination wastewaters may also contain heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and copper. Air emissions include dust, oil mists, acid vapors, odors, and boiler exhausts. Towards the search for sustainable industrial enterprises, recent studies indicated that there are many cleaner (sustainable) production opportunities which lead to waste reduction as well as increased raw material use efficiency in textile wet processing industry. The relevant reduction/conservation strategies, process modifications, chemical substitutions and reclamation/reuse techniques which reduce the wastes (air, water and solid/hazardous) originating from preparation, dyeing, printing, finishing, and other sources in textile mills were reported. The objective of this chapter is to: (a) provide an environmental profile of the wet textile industry, (b) review cleaner (sustainable) production opportunities in textile wet processing industry, and (c) report the progress obtained in the textile demonstration project in the context of the UNIDO Eco-efficiency (cleaner production) project which has been implemented in Turkey since 2008. © 2012 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.n.a.Halogenated Solvents106-93-4 106-94-5 74-96-4 75-26-3 107-06-2 127-18-4 56-23-5 630-20-6 67-66-3 67-72-1 71-55-6 75-09-2 75-34-3 75-35-4 76-01-7 79-00-5 79-01-6 79-34-5 87-68-3 96-18-4 96-23-1

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